16 Islamic dynasties that once ruled the world in history
who once ruled the world seemed to give a message that how Islam became a very big and strong religion on Earth. The location of the various Islamic dynasties that once ruled the world is also very widespread in various parts of the world.
Even some of the Islamic dynasties that once ruled the world often leave various important buildings in the area. In addition to various important buildings, usually, the Islamic dynasties that once ruled the world also left a system of government, some of which are still used today.
Maybe not many Muslims know what and where the various Islamic dynasties have ruled in the world. It is very unfortunate, that some of the Islamic dynasties that once ruled the world did not last long and many were destroyed in a short time because they were influenced by factors such as colonialism and the failure of the government system.
1. Umayyad (40 H/661 M – 132 H/750 M)
The Umayyad dynasty had power over the Middle East, North Africa, and Spain. The Umayyad dynasty was descended from Umayyad bin Abdul Shams bin Abdul Manaf, who was the leader of the Quraysh tribe. The Umayyad dynasty emerged after the departure of Ali bin Abi Talib (40 H/661 M).
Then, Mu’awiyah who is a descendant of the Umayyads from the lineage of the Harb family continued to rule by establishing the Umayyad dynasty. This dynasty is divided into two periods of power. This period is divided into the Umayyads of Damascus in Syria and the Umayyads of Cordoba in Spain.
A brief history, when Marwan II was killed by the Abbasid army in 132 H/750 M Then, Abdurrahman who was the grandson of Hisham escaped to Spain and founded the Umayyad dynasty in Cordoba. The Umayyad dynasty of Cordoba itself experienced a golden period during the reign of Abdurrahman III and al-Hakam II.
Until now, various relics of the Umayyad Dynasty of Damascus can be found, such as the Cathedral of St. John in Damascus which has become a mosque, and also a relic of the Umayyad Dynasty in Cordoba, namely the Cordoba Mosque in Spain.
2. Abbasids (132/750 M – 656 H/1258 M)
The Abbasid dynasty ruled over Iraq, Syria, the Arabian Peninsula, Uzbekistan, and Eastern Egypt. The founder of the Abbasid dynasty was Abu Abbas as-Saffah. The power of the Abbasid dynasty itself is divided into four periods, namely the early period 132 H/750 M-232 H/847 M), the continuation period (232 H/847 M-333 H/945 M), the Buwaihi period (333 H/945 M). – 447 H/1055 M), and the Seljuk period (447 H/1055 M-656 H/1258 M). The pattern of government in this dynasty did change according to the political, social, cultural, and ruling factors. The Abbasid dynasty reached its golden age when it was led by as-Saffah, al-Mansur, al-Mahdi, Harun ar-Rashid, al-Amin, al-Ma’mum, Ibragim, al-Mu’tasim, and al-Wasiq.
The demise of the Abbasid dynasty was due to internal conflicts and rebellions as well as external threats, such as the Byzantines and the Mongols. And this was exacerbated after the Mongols, under the leadership of Hulagu Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, destroyed Baghdad.
Some relics of the Abbasid dynasty such as Baitulhikmah which is a central institution of scientific studies founded by Caliph Harun ar-Rashid. In addition, there is also the al-Mutawakkil Mosque which has a spiral minaret in Samarra, Iraq.
3. Idrisiyyah (172 H/789 M – 314 H/926 M)
The territory of the Idrisiyyah dynasty was in the Maghreb. The Idrisiyah dynasty was founded by Idris I bin Abdullah, the grandson of Hasan bin Ali bin Abi Talib, who was the first Shia dynasty. The greatest Idrisiyyah leader was Yahya IV (292 H/905 M-309 H/922 M).
The Idrisiyyah dynasty had an important role in spreading Islamic culture and religion to the Berbers. The destruction of the Idrisiyyah dynasty because it was conquered by the Fatimid dynasty in 374 H/985 M.
Like the previous dynasty, the Idrisiyyah dynasty also has relics, namely the Karawiyyin Mosque and the Andalusian Mosque which were founded in 244 H/859 M.
4. Aghlabiyyah (184 H/800 M – 296 H/909 M)
Next is the Aghlabiyah dynasty whose territory in Aghlabiyah covers Tunisia and North Africa. Its first leader was Ibrahim I bin al-Aglab, who was the commander of the Khurasan Aghlabiyyah. He played a role in replacing Latin with Arabic and making Islam the majority religion.
In the 9th century, this dynasty succeeded in occupying Sicily and most of Southern Italy, Sardinia, Corsica, and the coast of the Alps. The Aghlabiyyah dynasty ended after being conquered by the Fatimids. Some of the relics of the Aghlabiyyah dynasty include the Qairawan Grand Mosque and the Grand Mosque in Tunis, Tunisia.
5. Samaniyah (203 H/819 M – 395 H/1005 M)
The Samanid dynasty had territories in Khurasan, Iraq, and Transoksania, Uzbekistan. The Samaniyah dynasty was founded by Ahmad bin Asad bin Samankhudat, who was the BalkhaThe nobleman from Northern Afghanistan.
The peak of its glory was in the reign of Isma’il II al-Muntasir, but could not be maintained because of the attacks of the Qarakhan dynasty and the Ghaznawi dynasty. Some of the remains of the Samanid dynasty are the Mausoleum of Muhammad bin Ismail al-Bukhari, who was a Muslim scientist.
6. Shafariyah (253 H/867 M – 900/1495 M)
The Shafariyah dynasty is an Islamic dynasty that has the longest reign in the world. His territory is in Sijistan, Iran. This dynasty was founded by Ya’qub bin Lais as-Saffar who was the leader of the Khawarij in Sistan Province, Iran.
The Shafariyah dynasty during the reign of Amr bin Lais was able to expand its territory to Eastern Afghanistan. And during that period the power of the Shafariyah dynasty reached its golden age. The weakening of this dynasty was due to rebellion and chaos from within the government itself and ended in the takeover of power by the Ghaznavid dynasty.
7. Thuluniyah (254 H/868 M – 292 H/905 M)
The Thuluniyah dynasty was an Islamic dynasty whose reign ended the fastest. The territory of the Thuluniyah dynasty was in Egypt and Syria. The founder of the Thuluniyah dynasty was Ahmad bin Tulun, who was a Turkic envoy from the governor of Transoxania, Uzbekistan. Actually, the task of Ahmad bin Tulun was to bring tribute to the Abbasids. The Thuluniyah dynasty only ruled for 38 years and ended when it was defeated by the Abbasid troops and the killing of Caliph Syaiban bin Tulun.
8. Hamdaniyah (292 H/905 M – 394 H/1004 M)
The territory of the Hamdaniyah dynasty was in Aleppo, Syria, and Mosul, Iraq. The Hamdaniyah dynasty of Mosul was led by Hasan who succeeded his father, Abu al-Haija. Hasan’s ability to lead was recognized by the Baghdad government. Meanwhile, the Hamdanid dynasty of Aleppo was founded by Ali Saifuddawlah, a brother of the Hamdanid rulers of Mosul. The end of the Hamdanid dynasty in either Mosul or Aleppo ended when its leaders died.
9. The Fatimids (296 H/909 M – 566 H/1171 M)
The Fatimid dynasty had a territory that covered North Africa, Egypt, and Syria. The background of the founding of the Fatimid dynasty was due to the weakening of the Abbasid dynasty. The founder of the Fatimid dynasty was Ubaidillah al-Mahdi. The Fatimid dynasty experienced its peak of glory during the reign of al-Aziz. Islamic culture developed very rapidly during the Fatimid dynasty. This can be seen in the establishment of the al-Azhar Mosque.
Al-Azhar Mosque a functionSalahuddinions as a center for Islamic studies and science. The end of the Fatimid dynasty after al-Adid who was the last caliph of the Fatimid dynasty fell ill. Salahudin Yusuf al-Ayyubi who was the vizier of the Fatimid dynasty took this opportunity to acknowledge the power of the Abbasid Caliph, al-Mustadi.
The Fatimid dynasty has various relics such as the al-Azhar Mosque which is currently known as its al-Azhar University, Bab al-Futuh, or known as the Futuh Fort, and the al-Akmar Mosque in Cairo, Egypt.
10. Buwaihi (333 H/945M – 447 H/1055M)
The territory of the Buwaihi dynasty was in Iraq and Iran. The Buwaihi dynasty was founded by three brothers, namely Ali bin Buwaihi, Hasan bin Buwaihi, and Ahmad bin Buwaihi. The Buwaihi dynasty itself is divided into two periods.
The first period is a period of growth and consolidation. Furthermore, the second period is a period of defending, especially defending the area of Iraq and Central Iran. The Buwaihi dynasty experienced rapid development when the Abbasid dynasty in Baghdad weakened. Meanwhile, the decline of the Buwaihi dynasty was due to the influence of Tugril Beg from the Seljuk dynasty.
There are several relics from the Buwaihi Dynasty, such as the observatory in Baghdad and several libraries in Shiraz, ar-Rayy, and Isfahan, Iran.
11. Seljuks (469 H/1077 M – 706 H/1307 M)
The territory of this dynasty included Iraq, Iran, Kirman, and Syria. The Seljuk dynasty was divided into five branches, namely the Iranian Seljuks, the Iraqi Seljuks, the Kirman Seljuks, the Asian Minor Seljuks, and the Syrian Seljuks. The founder of the Seljuk dynasty was Seljuk bin Duqaq who came from the Guzz tribe of Turkestan.
However, there is one figure who is mostly regarded as the founder of the Seljuk dynasty, namely Tugril Beq. He succeeded in expanding the power of the Seljuk dynasty and received recognition from the Abbasid dynasty. The period of the weakening of the Seljuk Dynasty itself was when its leaders died and the Seljuk Dynasty was conquered by other nations.
Some of the relics of the Seljuk Dynasty include Kizil Kule or also called the Red Tower in Alanya, Southern Turkey, and also the Friday Mosque in Isfahan, Iran.
12. Ayyubids (569 H/1174 M – 650 H/1252 M)
The territory of this dynasty was Egypt, Syria, and Yemen. The Ayyubid dynasty was founded by Salahuddin Yusuf al-Ayyubi after conquering the last caliph of the Fatimid dynasty, al-Add. Salahuddin managed to conquer other Islamic areas along with the crusaders.
Salahuddin was not only known for his war skills, but he also encouraged progress in the fields of religion and education. The end of the reign of the Ayyubids when the death of Malik al-Asyraf Muzaffaruddin. One of the relics of the Ayyubid dynasty is the Qal’ah al-Jabal Fort in Cairo, Egypt.
13. Delhi (602 H/1206 M – 962 H/1555 M)
The Delhi dynasty’s territory was in North India. In the first period, the Delhi dynasty was ruled by the Mamluks for 84 years. The Mamluks themselves were descendants of Qutbuddin Aybak, who was a slave from Turkey. Then, Khalji of Afghanistan ruled for 30 years. Followed by Tuglug who ruled for 93 years, and the Sayid Dynasty for 37 years. The last ruler of the Delhi dynasty was Lodhi who ruled for 75 years. There are several relics of the Delhi Dynasty such as the Kuwait al-Islam Mosque and the Qutub Minar in Lalkot, Delhi, India.
14. Mamluks (648 H/1250 M – 923 H/1517 M)
The territory of the Mamluk dynasty was in Egypt and Syria. The Mamluk dynasty was a class of servants belonging to the sultans and emirs who were given military education by their masters. The Mamluk dynasty that ruled in Egypt was divided into two, namely the Bahri Mamluks and the Burji Mamluks.
The first Sultan of the Bahri Mamluk dynasty was Izzudin Aibak. The Mamluk dynasty itself reached its golden age during the reign of Baybars. However, the dynasty’s rule was overthrown by the Burji Mamluks and taken over by the overthrow of the last Mamluk Bahri sultan, as-Salih Hajii bin Sha’ban.
The first sultan to rule the Burji Mamluk dynasty was Barquq. The Mamluk dynasty of Egypt itself made a big contribution to the history of Islam by defeating the European Christian group that attacked Sham, Syria. The Egyptian Mamluk dynasty also succeeded in defeating the Mongols, seizing and Islamizing the Nubian Kingdom, Ethiopia. In addition, the Mamluk dynasty also managed to control the islands of Cyprus and Rhodos.
The Mamluk dynasty of Egypt ended after al-Asyras Tuman Bai, who was the last sultan, was hanged by the Ottoman Turks. Some relics of the Mamluk dynasty such as the Rifai Mosque, the Qalawun Mausoleum, and the Sultan Hassan Mosque in Cairo, Egypt.
15. Ottomans (699 H/1300 M – 1341 H/1922 M)
The seat of government of this dynasty is in Istanbul, Turkey. This dynasty has the most extensive territory. Even his territory covers parts of Asia, Africa, and Europe. The Ottoman dynasty was one of the three major Islamic dynasties in the Middle Ages. The Ottoman dynasty itself became a great country after conquering Byzantium.
The Ottoman dynasty succeeded in spreading Islam to mainland Europe and the peak of this dynasty’s glory was during the reign of Solomon I. The Ottoman dynasty then weakened due to internal rebellion and lost against the Europeans. The Ottomans ended as a modern state in the form of a secular republic in 1924.
The establishment of the Turkish republic itself was spearheaded by Mustafa Kemal Pasha Ataturk. He instilled the notion of nationalism and abolished the sultanate. Until now, various relics of the Ottoman dynasty can still be found, such as the Solomon Mosque, the al-Muhammadi Mosque, the Abu Ayub al-Ansari Mosque, and the Hagia Sopha Mosque in Istanbul.
16. Mughals (931 H/1525 M – 1275 H/1858 M)
This dynasty ruled India. The Mughal dynasty was founded by Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur who was the first son of Umar Sheikh Mirza. The Mughal dynasty emerged when Babur ruled Punjab and overthrew the Lodhi Dynasty in Delhi. The Mughal dynasty was very concerned about the development of Islam, especially in the fields of education and science.
The Mughal dynasty founded the khanqah which was a pesantren that became a center for Islamic studies and science. The Mughal dynasty paid full attention to the development of civilization. Some of the relics of this dynasty are the Hawa Mahal Palace in Jaipur, the Red Fort in Delhi, the Taj Mahal in Agra, and the Badsyahi Mosque in Lahore. The collapse of this dynasty after the British established their power in India, and Bahadur II who was the last sultan of the Mughal Dynasty was expelled from his palace by the British rulers.