Everyone has a need for clothing, food and shelter. And to fulfill all that, you have to make an effort by expending energy, both physically and from the brain or mind. besides that everyone also needs an economic activity to get money to meet their needs.
Therefore we must carry out economic activities to achieve a goal of life according to Islam, the process of human creation, the goal of human creation and in accordance with the concept of man in Islam, the way of success according to Islam.
Trade in Islam
In Islam, a business person or trader is not only looking for profit, but also a blessing and sustenance that is pleasing to Allah. The benefits we must get are not only in terms of material but also immaterial. We can get material benefits in making a business, but not necessarily with immaterial benefits or in terms of religion and inner satisfaction.
The ethics of buying and selling that are taught in Islam are as follows:
1. Honest / Open / Transparent.
In an Islamic business, the customer is a king who must be treated specifically. This concerns how we serve them, customers will feel more comfortable if we can provide satisfactory service. Even sometimes they will not care about the price difference but the service we provide. In a trade, honesty is very important.
Honesty should be a trading principle for a Muslim entrepreneur. However, a trader or entrepreneur usually finds it difficult to do this. Be an entrepreneur who maintains honesty with every customer, follow the way of trading that has been exemplified by our Apostle.
Becoming a trader who is like the Prophet’s example is not easy, especially in this age full of slander. All kinds of ways to become lawful are used solely for the benefit of one party. Let alone a trader, even an official is able to commit treason and corruption in order to fulfill worldly desires.
Islam teaches us good trade knowledge, correct trade ethics or etiquette. We, as Muslims, should uphold the ethics taught by Islam in buying and selling or trading. Being honest is indeed something that looks trivial and easy to do, but make no mistake, a person’s faith will be tested through his honesty when trading.
Take an example of what the Prophet did when trading, he always prioritized honesty. For example, when he gives an explanation about the quality or specifications of an item, calculates the scales and so on.
Allah says ash Syu’araa verses 181-183
أَوْفُوا۟ ٱلْكَيْلَ وَلَا تَكُونُوا۟ مِنَ ٱلْمُخْسِرِينَ – وَزِنُوا۟ بِٱلْقِسْطَاسِٱلْمُسْتَقِيمِ – وَلَا تَبْخَسُوا۟ ٱلنَّاسَ أَشْيَآءَهُمْ وَلَا تَعْثَوْا۟ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ مُفْسِدِينَ
“Perfect the measure, lest you be of the losers, and weigh on a straight scale, and do not spread over the earth by causing corruption.”
In the Qur’an Allah says the letter
Muthaffifiin verses 1-6
وَيْلٌ لِلْمُطَفِّفِينَ – الَّذِينَ إِذَا اكْتَالُوا عَلَى النَّاسِ يَسْتَوْفُونَ – وَإِذَا كَالُوهُمْ أَوْ وَزَنُوهُمْ يُخْسِرُونَ – أَلا يَظُنُّ أُولَئِكَ أَنَّهُمْ مَبْعُوثُونَ – لِيَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ – يَوْمَ يَقُومُ النَّاسُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ
“Big woe for those who cheat, (namely) those who when they receive a dose from someone else, they ask for it to be filled, and when they measure or weigh for someone else they reduce it. Don’t these people think that they will be resurrected one day when humans will stand before the God who is in charge of nature?”
2. Selling goods that are not Haram.
Allah strongly reminds us of the principles of halal and haram in trading. Therefore, as Muslims who trade, we must know the origin of what we are trading. In addition, as halal results we must also avoid all kinds of usury.
3. Selling Goods with Good Quality
As traders, we must remain honest and pay attention to the halalness of the goods we sell. In addition, we also pay attention to the quality of the goods we sell, whether the quality is good or not suitable for us to sell to customers.
The quality of the goods we sell is our responsibility as traders. Therefore we must provide an explanation of how the quality of the goods we sell and the quantity of goods we sell to customers.
Providing information on the quality of goods is something we must do in trade. Because if we are not honest with the quality of the goods we sell, then this will have a negative impact on ourselves as traders.
For example, the goods we sell are of low quality, but we tell customers that the goods are extraordinary. When the customer wants to buy the merchandise because of the guarantee that we provide, automatically when the customer uses the item feels loss and disappointed with us as a trader. This can be said to be ethically flawed or morally flawed because what the trader has said is not in accordance with the quality of the goods he sells.
4. Do not hide the lack/damage to the goods
As a trader, we should explain about the quality of an item. But not only that because if the goods we sell have defects, then our job as sellers must be able to notify the customer about the damage and shortage of goods.
Ibn Majah narrated Watsilah bin Al-Asqa ra, she said, ‘I have heard the Prophet PBUH say, “Whoever sells an item that has a defect which he does not explain, surely he will be in the wrath of Allah and the angels will curse him.”
5. Don’t Give False Promises Or Oaths
When we go to a market, we often hear a merchant make a promise or oath about the quality of the goods he sells. For example, “goods are guaranteed not to be damaged easily” such words are included in promises or oaths that will be our responsibility even in the hereafter, therefore the Messenger of Allah said:
حَدَّثَنَایَحْیَى بْنُ بُكَیْرٍ حَدَّثَنَا اللَّیْثُ عَنْ یُونُسَ عَنْ ابْنِ شِھَابٍ قَالَ ابْنُ الْمُسَیَّبِ إِنَّ أَبَا ھُرَیْرَةَ رَضِيَ اللَّھُ عَنْھُ قَالَسَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّھِ صَلَّى اللَّھُ عَلَیْھِ وَسَلَّمَ یَقُولُ الْحَلِفُ مُنَفِّقَةٌ لِلسِّلْعَةِ مُمْحِقَةٌ لِلْبَرَكَةِ
Has told us Yahya bin Bukair has told us Al Laits from Yunus from Ibn Shihab said, Ibn Al Musayyab that Abu Hurairah radiallahu ‘anhu said; I heard the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wasallam say: “The oath is to promote trading but removes barakah”.
6. Generous to Customers
Serving customers generously will make them feel valued and satisfied with our services. Simply smiling and treating them like kings makes them happier than giving them a discount. As has been written in the Qur’an Surah Al A’raf verse 56:
إِنَّ رَحْمَةَ اللَّھِ قَرِیبٌ مِنَ الْمُحْسِنِینَ
“…Indeed, the mercy of Allah is near to those who do good.”
7. Don’t Neglect Prayer When Trading
Allah commands us not to neglect prayer, let alone leave it. A good Muslim will definitely do anything to fulfill his obligations to Allah. Likewise in trading we must pay attention to the obligation to pray every time.
Prioritizing the hereafter over this world is a good thing and we must do it every time. Prioritize your prayer obligations rather than having to concentrate on trading. For example, the city of Madina, Saudi Arabia, where when the call to prayer sounded, all traders would just leave their wares without any worries.
Therefore, 10 minutes before the call to prayer, we should get ready to perform the fardhu prayer. Carrying out obligations in Islam is the main life in the world.
Obeying the principles of Fiqh Muammalah Buying and Selling makes the life of a trader more peaceful and the sustenance that will be obtained is also more blessed and lawful. Running a business in accordance with the basic guidelines of good and correct Islamic law, besides that a trader must also know the following buying and selling ethics:
- Do not drop prices with other traders
- Keep promises that are said or agreements that have been made.
- Issue other people’s rights or zakat.
- Trust to customers.
- Record receivables,
- Be patient with customers.
- Not arrogant to the customer.
- Fair in trade, etc.
May we all be protected from actions that are displeasing to Allah swt.