Muslimcreed.com – The theory of Maqasyid Sharia has developed over time, where the purpose & intention according to the existence of sharia (Islamic religion) has been integrated using a lot of budgets in the revelation, both the revelation in the form of the Qur’an and the hadith of the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Maqasyid al-Syariah means the purpose of Allah SWT and His Messenger on the establishment of Islamic laws where the goal is to achieve Falah both in the world and akhirah.
That way, the main principle that must be the focal point in the formulation of the Islamic economy and other Islamic financial products is Maqasyid Syariah. because maqasyid sharia is the purpose of sharia born from the study of ushul fiqh. With ushul fiqh, istinbath can be done rules on various problems that arise in the people now &in the future, including in the field of Islamic economics which is currently a hot topic, because it concerns people’s lives on obtaining good happiness in the world and surviving the hereafter.
In economic conflicts, for permanent development to be in line with the principles of shari’a, the involvement of shari’a economic scholars becomes very crucial, for example, to provide solutions to financial-economic conflicts that arise both micro and macro, designing shari’a agreements for the needs of financial products in various shari’a financial forums, escorting and claiming all shari’a banking and financial products running in synchronous shari’ah. Therefore, the urgency of the concept of Maqashid Shari’ah al-Syatibi is very important to be used as a theory of study in economics related to the current feuds, so that the wheels of the economy amid society are appropriate using Maqashid Sharia & which is needed by the people themselves.
The practice of Islamic economics has begun to be carried out since the prophetic period of the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Gradually, sharia & Islamic economic practice continues to be built along with the development of Islamic civilization. After the Prophet died, the generation of Khulafaur Rasyidin, the Umayyad Dynasty, the Abbasid Dynasty, the Ottoman Dynasty, the Mammal Kingdom in Egypt, the Murabithin Kingdom & Muwahhidin in Morocco and the Mongol Kingdom in India and Asia, have practiced & developed an Islamic economic system that puts prosperity … prosperity.
According to Abdul Hasan & Aidit Ghazali in their book “Readings In Islamic Economic Thought” states The Islamic Economy was founded to be an expression according to the philosophy of life. Islamic economic philosophy is based on several primary foundations. First, Tawhid, as the most fundamental foundation based on the entire Islamic faith, implies a complete surrender to the Creator, Allah Almighty. Second, the Treatise brought by the Messenger of Allah Saw. Third, the hereafter and accountability for all economic activities carried out in the world. Fourth, well-being for a better life.
The economy in Islam is nothing more than a worship activity than a series of worship in every type of activity of human life. When there is the word Islamic economics, which means to do economic activities using the budget & Islamic principles in human economic activity, then it is human to worship in the economy.
The Islamic economic view of well-being is based on the holistic teachings of Islam regarding this life. All economic activities carried out by the human being, both individually and as citizens must be based on the goal of benefiting the good of mankind and religious principle (oriented in the present global life &s) & here & as well as life in the hereafter and there). This concept is very different from the concept of well-being in conventional economics because he sees science as something secular (oriented only in worldly life now and here) & completely excludes gods and human responsibilities to those whose power is exercised in the wake of his thinking.
The word Maqasid was first used by at-Turmudzi Al-Hakim, a cleric who lived in the 3rd century through his books which were later adopted by the imam Al- Qarafi. Maqashid’s subsequent thought was significantly developed involving only a few names of the majority namely Al-Juwaini, Al Ghazali, Al- Syatibi, and Thahir ibn ‘Assyria. Contemporary Maqasid thought was developed by Jasser Auda who is known to use the approach of the six system features, namely cognition features, diversity features, openness features, interrelated hierarchy features, multidimensionality features, and intendedness features.
According to Hans Wehr, Maqashid is a plural form (JAMA‟) based on maqshud. While the root of the word is from the mouth term qashada, which means to go; purposeful; desire & intentionality. The word maqshud-maqashid in Nahwu science is considered to be maf‟ul bih i.e. something that becomes an object, the term can therefore be interpreted using ‟purpose‟ or ‟some purpose. Whereas asy-Shari‟ ah ̧ is a subject form based on the root of the word syara‟ which is the path to the source of water as the source of life. Terminologically, al-Maqashid as-Shari‟ ah According to Wahbah al Zuhaili, Maqasid Al-Sharia means the values and targets of the syara‟ that are implicit to all of the largest part according to its laws. These values and goals are seen as the goals and mysteries of sharia, which the al-Shari‟ set out in every provision of the law.
The study of the theory of maqashid al-shari’ah on Islamic rules is of great importance. That urgency is based on the following considerations. First, Islamic rules are laws that originate from God’s revelation and are intended for people. Therefore, he will always face using social change. In such a position, whether the Islamic rules whose main origin (Qur’an & Sunnah) came down in the past few centuries can adapt to social changes. The answer to that question can only be given after a study of various elements of Islamic law, and one of the most important elements is the theory of maqashid al-shari’ah. Secondly, viewed according to historical aspects attention to this theory has been done by the Prophet Muhammad SAW, friends, & generations of mujtahids afterward. Third, knowledge of maqashid al-shari’ah is the key to the success of the mujtahid in its ijtihad, because it is based on the purpose of the law that any dilemma in bermu’amalah between fellow human beings can be returned.
Imam Al-Syatibi wrote that this Shari’a aims to realize the benefit of man in the global and hereafter. The central inspiration & as well as ultimate goal of maqashid al-sharia is maslahah. The benefits to be achieved by Sharia are generic & universal. The general nature is that it applies not to individuals exclusively but also to all people collectively & holistically. Universal is that the benefit applies not only to the exclusive period but to the whole of time & throughout human life. So, a starting point that must be underlined is that maqashid al-sharia boils down to the benefit of the human being as a social being, for which he must be responsible for himself & in the end later in Allah.
In the study of maqasid al-shari’ah, the main discussion is about the issue of advice and the establishment of a rule. For every mujtahid, in deciding a law whose problem is not expressly regulated by the Qur’an and al-Sunnah, the purpose of Islamic rules is generically known in advance. Moreover, about using contemporary legal matters sometimes one of the previous legal provisions is no longer suitable to be applied in the present due to changes in social structure. So knowledge of maqasid al-shari’ah is one of the crucial factors that determine the success of mujtahid in its ijtihad.