1. Formation of the Ikhsyidi dynasty
Ikhsyidiyah is the second dynasty that emerged in Egypt and managed to escape from the rule of the Caliph Bani Abbas (the first was the Thuluniyah dynasty). The Ikhsyidiyah dynasty was founded from 935 AD (323 H) to 969 AD (358 H), and had five emirs, namely;
- a. Muhammad bin Tugj al-Ikhsyidi (935-946 AD / 323 -334 H)
- b. Abu al-Qasim Unughur bin Muhammad (946-960 AD / 334-349 H)
- c. Abu al-Hasan Ali bin Muhammad (960-966 AD / 349-355 H0
- d. Kafur (966-968 AD / 355-357 H)
- e. Abu al-Fawaris Ahmad bin Ali (968-969 AD / 357-358 H)
The founder of this dynasty Muhammad bin Tugj was a man of Turkish descent from Fargana. At first, he was subordinate to the governor of Egypt, Ibn Bistam (until 910 AD / 297 AH), then Abi al-Qasim Ali; and joined the fight under Tiskim’s command against the Fatimid forces who repeatedly invaded Egypt.
Many brilliant achievements can be made by Muhammad bin Tugj so that since 935 AD (323 H) he has become the highest ruler (governor/emir) over the regions of Egypt, Syria, and Hejaz. In 939 AD (327 H) he was dubbed “al-Ikhsyidi” (the title of the former kings of Farghana) by the Caliph of Bani Abbas, Radi. He then took part in repelling the Fatimid invasion of Nasir and he was appointed governor of Alexandria so that he has entrusted with the governorship of Egypt in 323 AH / 934 AD, as a reward for his victory over the Fatimids in North Africa. In the year 324 H, the Abbasid caliph bestowed the title “al-ikhsyid” on him which was inserted in the Friday sermon and written in currency.
2. Progress of the Ikhsyidiyah dynasty
The reign of the Egyptian Ikhshid was very strong, peace and order were entirely established under al-Ikhshid’s army of 400,000 people, and 8000 people were made into his bodyguard. Their payments and gifts (salaries) are provided regularly from abundant sources of wealth.
He gave several irrigation systems and gave an overview of the flood maps of the Nile on November 14th, and their conclusions on the Nile delta in January. Some historians also explain that Ikhsyid permitted the people to dig for hidden treasures from what they said, they had got clues about the items they wanted in ancient manuscripts but they only found caves from the basement, full of statues made of stone. of bones and dust called mummies. It seems that what the Ikhshidiyah dynasty could build in Egypt was a new palace on the island of Raudah, known as “al-Mukhtar”. In addition, “Kafur Park” and “Medan Ikhsyidiyah” were also built. Ikhsyid died in 334 H / 946 AD and was succeeded by his eldest son Anujur.
He extinguished the damage with wisdom, which wisdom was respected with full consideration by all public officials. Soon after that news arrived that Hamdaniyah, Sayf al-Dawlah had already occupied Damascus and were on their way to Raudah. Kafur managed to check the progress of Sayf al-Dawlah. This added to his reputation and although he did not hold any constitutional powers, he was able to control all matters in his country. He was recognized with the title “Uztadz” (tutor) and was a large part of the population who influenced him. With this title, his name was mentioned in the Friday sermon and he succeeded in persuading the leadership of the employees by getting them tangible assistance.
As Anujur grew older or matured, however, enmity arose between Kafur and himself. Every day both of them are supported by their faction and everyone is guarding them against each other. Their enmity grew fiercer and the war troops split into two groups namely;
a. The Kufriyah group, namely the Mamluks (servants) of Kafur who have been appointed by him to the highest place of power.
b. The Ikhsyidiyah group, namely servants (Mamluk) and followers of the Ikhsyidiyah family.
In the year 349 H / 960 AD Anujur died, his body was taken to Jerusalem and buried near his father’s grave. Kafur was now strong enough to control the appointment of a successor and Ikhshidiyah’s second son Ali replaced him with an annual pension of 400,000 dinars. The entire administration of Egypt and Syria was held under the rule of Kafur.
The new governor, despite being 23 years old, was guarded in his palace and not allowed to see anyone. The feeling of mutual hostility was the same until the governor died in 355 AH / 966 AD. For some time Egypt remained without a regular/regular government, all power fell to Kafur, who when he was advised to proclaim the son of Ali, replied that the child was still very young unfit to rule over the government.
3. The decline of the Ikhsyidiyah dynasty
On the 4th of Muharram 355 AH, about one month after Ali’s death. Kafur shows a long coat of honor was sent from Baghdad and the Chapter/charter appointed him governor with the title “Uztadz”. On the 10th of Shafar of the same year, he began wearing the mantle of honor in public.
During this period Egypt suffered/endured very deep tribulation. The worst Egypt (disaster) was that the Nile was very low and water shortages and the bubonic plague caused the deaths of thousands of people. It is very unlikely to bury them and their bodies to be thrown into the Nile. Some of the necessities of life were unsustainable, corn was very difficult to obtain and farms were seized.
To add to the sorrow of this country, Kafur was unable to prevent the Qarmatians who carried out the attack on Syria in 352 AH / 963 AD, the capture or confiscation of the Egyptian Hajj caravan on their way to Mecca in 355 H / 965 -966 AD, he also could not defend the country from the Nubians who seized the areas in the south. Moreover, payments to the Kafur guards were reduced to their usual allowances/gifts in arrears. And they are the cause of the rebellion.
It was this Egyptian state or condition that led to the death of Kafur in 358 AD Brother Ikhsyid was responsible for great power. The Ikhshidiyah government/rule or at least their nominal rule lasted for five irregular months and the state could not offer an effective defense against attacks launched by the Fatimid caliphate in North Africa.