Islam is one of the official religions in Indonesia and is the only religion that is practiced by most of the population. Although this religion is not the first religion to enter Indonesia, the influence of Islam looks much greater. Then, are you all curious about the history of the birth of Islam? Islam is known as the heavenly religion or the heavenly religion which was brought by the Prophet Muhammad on the orders of Allah SWT. The word “Islam” also has a meaning that comes from the Arabic “Aslam” which means safe. In addition, Islam also means peace and salvation based on surrender to Allah SWT.
History of the Founding of Islam
Islam was first born in Arab countries, where its arrival began with the birth of the Prophet Muhammad. Prophet Muhammad SAW is a prophet of the end times and was appointed by Allah SWT to be an apostle. After that, Prophet Muhammad SAW also spread Islam to all Arabs. Nabu Muhammad SAW was born in Mecca on 12 Rabi’ul Awal the Year of the Elephant, or on April 20 571. He was an orphan with his father named Abdulla bin Abu Muttalib who died while trading. While his mother named Aminah bint Wahab died when he was 7 years old.
At the age of 40 years, the Prophet Muhammad was often alone and meditated in the Cave of Hira. Finally on 17 Ramadan 11 SH or 6 August 611, he was visited by the Angel Gabriel who came to convey the first revelation from Allah SWT to him “Read by (mentioning) the name of your Lord Who created …” (Surah 96:1-5). With the revelation of the revelation, the Prophet Muhammad was chosen as an apostle by Allan SWT.
The struggle of Prophet Muhammad SAW in Spreading Islam
As the chosen apostle, Prophet Muhammad must spread these teachings and spread the truth to all people in the world. So since then, Prophet Muhammad SAW was determined to carry out his duties and spread the teachings of Islam throughout the world. At first, he only taught the belief to those closest to him in secret. Gradually, his accusations began to be presented openly and from these charges, some accepted and of course, some strongly rejected them. The great challenge came from his people, namely the Quraish tribe.
This conflict led to cruelty against the Muslims and threats to kill him, so the Prophet Muhammad SAW also moved outside Mecca to the city of Yathrib (which was later changed to Medina). There, the Prophet Muhammad was more accepted and many Yathrib followers were willing to embrace the religion that was taught. The strategy of indicting Muhammad SAW is as follows:
Instilling faith in friends
Prophet Muhammad SAW introduced monotheism to his companions and his people as the basis of human life where the essence of human creation is to worship Allah SWT. The purpose of this teaching is when a person has faith in Allah SWT, then he is obliged to apply it to everyday life, including in defending religious interests and defending Islam. This is what made the companions of the Prophet Muhammad SAW willing to sacrifice for the defense of Islam.
In preaching, he uses a clear stage and strategy, where he starts with his own family before spreading to the immediate environment and then proceeds to the outside community little by little. In addition, the apostle also invited friends who were respected by the Quraysh to participate in spreading the religion of Islam. The Prophet also taught Islamic values and how to carry out worship in stages, such as prayer, fasting, zakat, alms, hajj, and so on.
Take advantage of existing potential
Prophet Muhammad SAW used the human potential that was in his indictment effectively. One way is to marry Khadija and invite her uncle who has a lot of wealth to provide funds for his accusation. In addition, the apostle also had friends who had a great influence on the Quraysh tribe. It was they who helped and protected the apostle in war. Prophet Muhammad SAW also took advantage of the intellectual potential of his friends for the sake of spreading Islam such as Ali bin Abi Talib, Zaid bin Thabit, and Abdullah bin Mas’ud.
The superiority of diplomacy and the preaching of the Prophet Muhammad caused Muslims to enter a very decisive phase. When the war between Medina and Mecca occurred, many residents of Mecca who previously rejected the teachings of Islam turned to embracing Islam. Let’s also look at the history of the Arab-Israeli war. After the city of Mecca was conquered, the efforts of the Prophet Muhammad SAW began to flower in the Arabs, wherein the end almost the entire Arabian Peninsula had embraced Islam when he died.
History of the Founding of Islam in the World
After the death of the Prophet Muhammad, he was replaced not by a prophet but by a caliph. Four caliphs became the successor of the Prophet Muhammad, called Khulafaur Rashidin. This caliph was the closest friend of the Prophet Muhammad, namely Abu Bakr Ash Shidiq, Umar bin Khattab, Usman bin Affan, and Ali bin Abi Talib. The four of them have an important task, namely to ensure that Muslims continue to carry out Islamic religious orders that have been taught previously. As a result, the religion of Islam has expanded widely throughout the world as in the history of the Champa Kingdom.
After the period of Khulafaur Rashidun ended, Arab empires such as the Abbasids, Umayyads, and Ottomans emerged that connected the power of the first four caliphs of Islam. The increase in the power of the dynasty is in line with strengthening the influence of Islam in Europe and Africa, such as the history of the founding of Al-Azhar.