How to Calculate Complete Mal Zakat from Livestock Income
Zakat mal is one type of zakat in Islam. Zakat mal is categorized based on the type of property so that the way to calculate zakat mal is different. The definition of zakat is part of the property that must be issued by Muslims to be given to people who are entitled to receive it according to the provisions of Islamic law. An asset can be subject to zakat if it fulfills the following conditions: Full ownership. Legally acquired assets. Assets that can be developed or utilized. Sufficient nisab. Free from debt. Reach haul. Or it can be done at harvest. In general, zakat is divided into two types, namely zakat fitrah which is issued once a year during Ramadan and zakat maal which is issued from property owned.
So, what is the meaning of zakat mal, how to calculate zakat mal, and one of the functions of zakat mal? Check out the following explanation. Definition of zakat mal The term mal in zakat mal is from Arabic which means property or wealth. Thus, zakat mal is zakat imposed on all types of property owned by a person. According to the Big Indonesian Dictionary, zakat mal is a zakat that must be given on ownership of assets such as money or gold with sufficient conditions. Zakat is one of the pillars of Islam so that it is a worship that must be done by every Muslim. Therefore, the law of zakat including zakat mal is obligatory on every Muslim who has met certain conditions.
A person can be said to be obliged to pay zakat mal if he has assets that reach a certain nisab (lowest limit set by religion) for one year.
Thus, zakat mal is only paid after the assets owned have reached the nisab and haul or have been owned for one year. One of the functions of zakat mal is to clean property and belongings from other people’s rights and cleanse the heart from stingy and greedy and add to it. Zakat mal can also strengthen brotherhood among Muslims. Meanwhile, from the side of zakat recipients, one of the functions of zakat mal is to help improve their lives and eliminate feelings of envy and envy seeing other people whose lives are more affluent. Zakat mal is divided into several types depending on the type of property. Based on Law Number 23 of 2011, the types of zakat mal are:
Zakat on gold and silver, Zakat on money and securities, Zakat on commerce, Zakat on agriculture, plantations and forestry, Zakat on livestock and fisheries, Zakat on mining, Zakat on industry, Zakat on income or professions, Zakat on rikaz. Meanwhile, according to Yusuf Al-Qardhawi, the types of zakat mal are: Zakat on deposits of gold, silver, and other valuables. Zakat on trading assets. Zakat on livestock. Zakat on agricultural products. Zakat on processed plant and animal products. Zakat on mining and marine catches. Zakat on the rental of assets. Zakat on the results of professional services. Zakat on the proceeds of shares and bonds
How to calculate zakat mal depends on the type of property that will be zakated. The reason is, in zakat mal there are many types of assets that are included as assets that must be subject to zakat. The following is the distribution of how to calculate zakat mal, quoted from the book Fiqh, Zakat, Alms, and Waqf by Qodariah Barkah et al, namely: 1. Zakat mal income The income zakat nazab in zakat mal is if a person’s income has reached the equivalent of 85 grams of gold per year. How to calculate professional mal zakat or income zakat is quite easy. According to the MUI Fatwa, zakat income is paid at 2.5 percent of income per month. Also read: What is the Difference Between Sharia and Conventional Mutual Funds? But if someone has an uncertain income per month, then zakat income can be calculated for 1 year. Then if the total income per year is equivalent to the value of 85 grams of gold at that time, then it is obligatory to pay zakat income of 2.5 percent of the total income per year. 2. Zakat mal for livestock
The livestock that are obliged to be paid zakat are camels, cows, buffalo, horses (except riding horses), goats, sheep, sheep, and so on. The nisab of zakat on livestock in zakat mal is when the livestock has reached a certain quantity stipulated by the syara’ law. For example, the nisab of cows, buffaloes, horses is 30 so the way to calculate zakat mal is that every time you have 30 cows, you have to pay zakat on 1 one year old calf. Then the nisab of zakat mal for goats and sheep is 40, so the way to calculate zakat mal is that every time you have 40 goats, you must pay zakat on 1 goat that is at least 1 year old. Also read: Sharia Economics: Definition, Purpose, and Characteristics Animals raised commercially, such as chickens, ducks, and quails, are subject to 2.5 percent of the trade proceeds. 3. Zakat mal on gold and silver The nisab for zakat on gold in zakat mal is 20 dinars or the equivalent of 85 grams of pure gold, while the nisab for silver is 595 grams. Then the way to calculate zakat mal is 2.5 percent times the total gold or what is owned. This provision also applies to zakat mal in the form of money, checks, current accounts, savings, shares, and securities. For example, if you have 87 grams, then 2.5% x 87 grams = 2.11 grams or the money is worth the gold. Also read: What is Personal Income Tax and How is It Calculated? 4. Zakat mal on agricultural products Zakat is agricultural products that have economic value such as seeds, tubers, vegetables, fruits, ornamental plants, and so on.
The nisab of zakat on agricultural products in zakat mal is 5 wasaq or the equivalent of 653 kilograms of grain, corn, or dates. Meanwhile, for agricultural products other than staple food, if it is irrigated with rain or river water, the zakat is 10 percent and if it is irrigated with irrigation, the zakat is 5 percent. An example of how to calculate zakat mal, if the rice harvest from irrigated fields with a yield of 3 tons. In the management, fertilizers and insecticides are needed for Rp. 600,000. Also read: Must Know, This is the Difference between Islamic Banks and Conventional Banks. So how to calculate zakat mall is as follows: The price of grain is IDR 3,000 per kg. The yield of 3 tons of grain is 3 tons or 3,000 kg. The management fee is IDR 600,000, equivalent to the price of 200 kg of grain. So the net yield is only 2,800 kg. So the zakat is 5% x 2,800 kg = 70 kg. In conclusion, zakat mal is part of the property owned which must be given to other people who have rights like the poor. The way to calculate zakat mal is different for each type of property.