What is the law of plastic surgery according to the Islamic view?
Plastic surgery is understood by the general public as a medical term that refers to surgical practices performed on certain body parts to repair or restore certain body parts to their original or desired shape.
Plastic surgery on the face or face off in medical terms is an attempt to reconstruct a face that was damaged due to an accident so that it returns to its original state. Face off is an invention of medical technology that is carried out with a surgical system and if necessary by replacing the damaged part of the face with other body parts. This matter was decided by the kiai through a follow-up decision on the BahtsulMasail Commission of BahtsulMasail Ad-Diniyyah Al-Waqi’iyyahMunasAlimUlama at the PBNU Building, Jakarta on 21-22 Rajab 1427 H/16-16 August 2006 M.
At that time, the kiai said that the practice of face off was more often carried out by women. In Fathul Bari SyarahShahihil Bukhari, the work of Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani, it is stated by Imam Ath-Tabari’sqaul that women should not change something from the original form that Allah SWT has created, either adding or subtracting to make it look good. For example, a woman whose eyebrows are close together, then she removes (eyebrow hairs) that is between the two, to make it look beautiful or vice versa (it looks ugly by sticking it together).
Or a woman who has more teeth and she pulls them out; or his teeth are long and he cuts them off; or the woman has a beard or mustache or hair under her lips and plucks them out; and a woman whose hair is short or thin and she lengthens it or thickens it with someone else’s hair; All of that is a prohibited act, because it changes what has been created by Allah SWT.
At-Tabari also argues, unless there is a part of the body that causes harm and pain. For example, a woman who has extra teeth or long teeth that interfere with her when she eats, or has extra fingers that irritate her or make her sick, then she may pull them out or cut them off. In this latter case, men are equal to women. Then how is the law of face off (reconstructing the face) so that it returns to its original state. Those in the forum stated that it is legal to reconstruct the face so that it returns to the way it was before, it is legal to quote a number of scholars’ views, one of which is Sheikh WahbahAz-Zuhayli below.
يَجُوزُ نَقْلُ الْعُضْوِ مِنْ مَكَانٍ مِنْ جِسْمِ الْإِنْسَانِ إِلَى مَكَانٍ آخَرَ مِنْ جِسْمِهِ مَعَ مُرَاعَاةِ التَّأَكُّدِ مِنْ أَنَّ النَّفْعَ الْمُتَوَقَّعِ مِنْ هذِهِ الْعَمَلِيَّةِ أَرْجَحُ مِنَ الضَّرَرِ الْمُتَرَتَّبِ عَلَيْهَا وَبِشَرْطِ أَنْ يَكُونَ ذلِكَ لِإِيجَادِ عُضْوٍ مَفْقُودٍ أَوْ لِإِعَادَةِ شَكْلِهِ أَوْ وَظِيْفَتِهِ الْمَعْهُودَةِ لَهُ أَوْ لِإِصْلَاحِ عَيْبٍ أَوْ إِزَالَةِ دَمَامَةٍ تُسَبِّبُ لِلشَّخْصِ أَذًى نَفْسِيٍّا أَوْ عُضْوِيًّا
It means, “It is permissible to move a limb from one place on one’s body to another, with careful consideration, the expected benefits of such an operation outweigh the harm. It is also required that the operation be carried out to shape the missing limb, to restore it to its original form, restore its function, eliminate defects, or eliminate ugly forms that make a person experience mental stress or physical disturbances,” (See Sheikh Wahbah al-Zuhaili, Al-FiqhulIslamiwaAdillatuh, [Beirut, DarulFikr: no year noted], vol. VIII, page 5124). This NU National Conference continued forum also quoted the views of Sheikh Abdul Karim Zaidan, a professor of jurisprudence and ushulfiqh in Iraq, regarding medical operations in order to reconstruct the face or other body parts due to defects caused by certain accidents.
قَدْ تُصَابُ الْمَرْأَةُ بِشَيْءٍ مِنَ التَّشْوِيهِ فِي وَجْهِهَا أَوْ بِأَجْزَاءٍ ظَاهِرَةٍ مِنْ بَدَنِهَا نَتِيجَةَ حَرْقٍ أَوْ جَرْحٍ أَوْ مَرَضٍ وَهذَا التَّشْوِيهُ لَايُطَاقُ احْتِمَالُهُ لِمَا يُسَبِّبُهُ مِنْ أَدًى مَعْنَوِيٍّ لِلْمَرْأَةِ فَهَلْ يَجُوزُ إِجْرَاءُ عَمَلِيَّاتٍ جِرَاحِيَّةٍ لِإِزَالَةِ هَذَا التَّشْوِيهِ وَلَوْ أَدَّتْ هَذِهِ الْعَمَلِيَّاتُ إِلَى شَيْءٍ مِنَ التَّحْسِينِ وَالتَّجْمِيلِ لِأَنَّ الْقَصْدَ الْأَوَّلَ إِزَالَةُ التَّشْوِيهِ الَّذِي حَصَلَ وَحَتَّى لَوْ قَصَدَتِ الْمَرْأَةُ مِنْ إِجْرَاءٍ مِنْ هذِهِ الْعَمَلِيَّاتِ تَحْصِيلُ شَيْءٍ مِنَ التَّحْسِينِ بِإِزَالَةِ هذَا التَّشْوِيهِ فَتَبْقَى هذِهِ الْعَمَلِيَّاتُ فِي دَائِرَةِ الْمُبَاحِ لِأَنَّ رَغْبَةَ الْمَرْأَةِ فِي تَحْسِينِ وَجْهِهَا جَائِزَةٌ جَاءَ فِي فِقْهِ الْحَنَابِلَةِ وَلَهَا حَلْقُ وَجْهٍ وَحَفِّهِ وَتَحْسِينِهِ وَتَحْمَيرِهِ
A woman sometimes suffers from a disfigurement of the face, or external limbs, as a result of burns, lacerations, or other diseases. This defect cannot be tolerated by a woman because it causes mental stress for her. So can he have surgery to remove it? The operation can be taken, although it will lead to beautify and beautify themselves. Because, the main goal is to eliminate defects. In fact, if with the operation he intends to beautify himself with the disappearance of the defect, then the operation is still in the permissible level. Because the tendency of women to beautify their faces is allowed. In the Hanbali fiqh there is a statement, ‘For women it is permissible to shave (hair) the face, scrape it off, beautify and redden it,'” (See Sheikh Abdul Karim Zaidan, Al-Mufashshal fi Ahkamil Mar’ah wa Baitil Mal, [Beirut, Muassasatur Treatise: without year note] volume III, page 410).
This statement from Sheikh Abdul Karim Zaidan also allows plastic surgery in order to beautify oneself in beauty clinics. Sheikh Abdul Karim Zaidan views that plastic surgery for the face for the sake of beauty is still within the limits of reasonableness justified by the Shari’a as quoted from the Hanbali School of thought. Wallahu a’lam.