Muslimcreed.com – The science of Sufism entered into the teachings of Islam which was later developed by the Sufis. This term itself comes from Arabic, namely from the word “tasawwafa or yatashowwaru – tashowwuf” which means (to be) hairy, or to be the characteristics of a Sufi.
Usually a Sufi has a characteristic clothing made of wool or fleece. The science of Sufism then also came from various influences of religious teachings and other philosophies so that in the end it was adapted to the concept of Islam.
Definition of Sufism
Sufism or also known as Sufism is a teaching about how to purify the soul, purify morals, and build dhahir and mind to be able to obtain eternal happiness.
Still in the same source, Sufism itself can be interpreted as a method to achieve closeness and unification between the servant and God and to achieve the truth or ultimate knowledge (ma’rifat) and the essence of religion.
Understanding Sufism According to Experts
In fact, the science of Sufism has many meanings and is put forward from several experts. The following is the meaning of Sufism from various points of view.
1. Sheikh Abdul Qadir al-Jailani
Sufism is purifying the heart and releasing lust from its base with seclusion, riya-dloh, taubah, and sincerity.
Sufism has the meaning of cleansing the heart from disturbing human feelings, as well as extinguishing weaknesses, staying away from desires and lusts, approaching things that are pleasing to Allah, and depending on the sciences of nature.
Besides that, he also gives advice to everyone, by holding tightly to the promise with Allah in terms of nature and following the example of the Prophet Muhammad in matters of sharia.
3. Shaykh Ibn Ajibah
The science of Sufism according to the sheikh is a science that will bring a person to be close to God Almighty through spiritual purification and sweeten it with righteous deeds. The first way of Sufism is with knowledge, the second is charity and the last is a gift from God.
4. H. M. Amen Thank you
Sufism as an exercise with sincerity (riya-dloh, mujahadah) to then be able to cleanse the heart, enhance faith and deepen one’s spiritual aspect.
This itself is done in order to draw humans closer to God so that the attention he has is then directed to God.
Apart from the many understandings of Sufism by experts, some views on Sufism can be interpreted as one of the efforts made by someone to purify themselves.
This is done by keeping away the influences of life that are worldly pleasures and by focusing all their attention on Allah SWT. So, with more emphasis on the spiritual aspect than the physical aspect he has.
This is because Sufism leaders believe more in spiritual virtues when compared to the primacy of the body and believe in the spiritual world more than the material world. The characters believe that the spiritual world is then more real when compared to the physical world, so that everything that is the ultimate goal or what is called God is also considered spiritual.
History and Development of Sufism
There are several versions about the emergence of Sufism. Some believe that Sufism existed before the Prophet Muhammad became an apostle. There are also those who believe that Sufism emerged after the Prophet’s apostleship.
Sufism itself appeared before the Prophet Muhammad became an apostle. Some opinions then say that Sufism is an understanding that has developed before the Prophet Muhammad became the Messenger of Allah.
This then came from the people of Iraq and Iran who had just converted to Islam (around the 8th century AD). Even though he has converted to Islam, his life still maintains modesty and keeps away from various worldly luxuries and pleasures.
Sufism from the time of the Prophet Muhammad SAW. Some other opinions state that the origin of the teachings of Sufism comes from the time of the Prophet Muhammad.
Derived from the word “veranda” (suffa), and the perpetrator is also called ahl al-suffa, as mentioned above. They are then considered as planters of the seeds of Sufism that come from the knowledge of the Prophet Muhammad.
Sufism emerged after the time of the Prophet Muhammad. Another opinion states that Sufism emerged when the conflict between Muslims in the time of Caliph Uthman bin Affan and Ali bin Abi Talib was mainly caused by political factors.
The conflicts that occurred between Muslims were caused by political factors and the struggle for power that continued during the caliphs after Uthman and Ali. There are people who react to this and then make them think that politics and power are dirty areas.
They carry out various ‘uzlah movements, namely withdrawing from the frenzy of worldly problems. Then came the Sufism movement which was pioneered by Hasan Al-Basri in the second century Hijriyah.
The Principles of Sufism
Sufism aims to help a person to stay on the path of Allah SWT. With Sufism a person then becomes not excessive in worldly matters and remains focused on the faith and piety he has.
There are several principles that can be done in Sufism. According to the Sufi expert, Professor Angha in The Hidden Angels of Life, the principles of Sufism that can be done are as follows.
Zikir as a process of heart purification, cleansing and release. People who do remembrance then aim to get closer to God through prayer and chanting remembrance lafaz.
2. Fikr (Meditation)
When the mind is confused or wondering, focus the attention you have within yourself by concentrating on one point. Meditation is a journey of mental activity from the external world to an essence of self.
3. Sahr (Rise)
By Awakening the soul and body as a process of developing eye and ear awareness. Besides that, it is also a process of listening to the heart, as well as a process of gaining access to one’s hidden potential.
4. Ju’i (Feeling Hungry)
Feeling hunger in the heart and mind to then persist in seeking and getting a truth. This process then involves a deep desire and desire to remain steadfast and patient in finding one’s identity.
5. Shumt (Enjoying Silence)
Stop thinking and saying unnecessary things. Both of these are processes of calming the tongue and brain and diverting from external temptations to God.
6. Shawm (Fasting)
Not only in the body that is fasting but the mind as well. This process then includes physical fasting, useful for being able to escape from the desires and desires of the brain as well as the views or perceptions of the external senses.
7. Seclusion (Silent Alone)
Praying in silence or solitude, both externally and internally will help to escape. Being alone will still bring you closer to other people or in a crowd.
8. Solemn (Serving)
Unite with God’s truth. One who finds the soul’s path to service and self-growth.
The flow of Sufism and its teachings
There are various kinds of Sufism, including:
1. Moral Sufism (Sunni)
Moral Sufism is a Sufism that concentrates on theories of moral behavior and theories of character.
With certain methods that have been formulated previously, Sufism like this then seeks to avoid mazmumah morals or bad behavior and realize mahudah morals or good behavior.
In the view of the Sufis who argue that to rehabilitate a bad mental attitude, therapy is needed that is not only from the outward aspect, therefore in Sufism, morality has a moral development system which is structured as follows:
– Takhalli as a first step that must be done by a Sufi.
– Takhalli is an attempt to empty oneself of a despicable behavior.
Tahalli is an effort to fill and decorate oneself by getting used to the attitude, behavior, and commendable character. The tahalli stage is then carried out by the Sufis after emptying the soul of despicable morals.
– Tajalli is a consolidation and deepening of material that has been through the tahalli phase, then the next series of moral education is the tajalli phase. The word tajalli itself means the opening of the hijab so that the divine light is clearly visible.
2. Philosophical Sufism
Philosophical Sufism is a Sufism that is based on a combination of Sufism theories and various philosophies or has a metaphysical or mystical meaning. Sufism was also later developed by Sufi experts as well as philosophers.
3. Syi’i Sufism
Shi’i Sufism then assumes that humans can die with their Lord because they have the same essence with their Lord.