|Caliph On Earth|
Surah Al Baqarah is the second Surah in the Quran, which consists of 286 verses. This letter is classified as a madaniyah letter because it was revealed in the city of Medina, Surah al-Baqarah means cow
In addition to explaining about the cow sacrifice, Al Baqarah also explains the creation of humans contained in the 30 th verse.
|Surah Al Baqarah verse 30|
According to NU online what is meant by the caliph here is the prophet Adam. He is called the caliph, because he is a substitute for the jinn who previously came. Prophet Adam was called caliph, because he would be replaced by someone else. Prophet Adam was a vicegerent of Allah on earth to enforce His provisions and carry out His commands.
In the book “Islamic Education” by Bachrul Ilmy, in Surah Al Baqarah verse 30, Allah explains to the angels that He will create humans to take care of this earth. So that there is a dialogue between God and the angels relating to the creation of man.
In the dialogue, the angel seems to doubt human abilities, because humans always damage and cause bloodshed. However, humans have other advantages.
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Known as caliph on Earth, which means humans as representatives or leaders on earth. Of course, this task is very heavy, so that every human being must have the ability to control the universe according to the mandate that has been given by Allah SWT.
This is also explained in the words of the prophet Muhammad SAW narrated by Abu Hurairah ra, namely:
When Allah told His angels that Adam would be the caliph on this earth, the angels asked Allah, why was Adam chosen to be the caliph on earth, even though Adam and his descendants would do corruption and bloodshed on earth. The angels think that they are the ones who are more worthy to receive the position, because they are creatures of Allah SWT who always glorify, praise and always glorify God Almighty.
Allah SWT did not justify the assumptions of the malikans, and he replied that We know what you do not know. Everything that Allah will do is based on His almighty knowledge and wisdom even though they cannot be known, including the inauguration of Adam A.S. as vicegerent on earth.
What is meant by the caliph of Prophet Adam on Earth is his position as the caliph of this Earth, to carry out His orders, and the prosperity of the earth, and to take advantage of what is in it.
This understanding is confirmed by the Word of God:
“| !..O David, indeed we have made you caliph on this earth|” (Sad/38:26)
As we know David A.S. Apart from being a prophet he also became a king for His people. This verse is a proof of the obligation of Muslims to choose and inaugurate high leaders as figures who unite all people to enforce the laws of Allah SWT on this earth.
The scholars have mentioned the conditions that must be possessed by a leader, which include: fairness, and knowledge that allows him to act as judge and mujtahid, has no physical disability, is experienced enough, and there is no favoritism in carrying out Allah’s laws.
Information about QS. Al-Baqarah.
Surah Al Baqarah Verse 286 which was revealed in Medina most of which was revealed at the beginning of the Hijrah year, except for verse 281 was revealed in Mina on Hajji Wadaa’ (the last pilgrimage of the Prophet Muhammad). All verses in Surah Al Baqarah are included in the Madaniyyah letter group, which is the longest letter of the letters in the Koran in which there is also a long verse (verse 282). It is named Surah Al-Baqarah because in it is called the story of the slaughter of a female cow which was commanded by Allah to the children of Israel (verses 67-74), which describes the character of the Jews in general. It is called FUSTHAATUL Qur’an (the peak of the Quran), because it contains several laws that are not mentioned in other surahs. This letter is also often called the letter Alif-Laam-Miim because this letter begins with the word Alif-Laam-Miim.
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