The Development of Islamic Architecture from Time to Time
The development of Islamic architecture during the Abbasid and Seljuk times began around the 11th century. In that era, the great development of Islamic architecture was seen in the use of brick material techniques from Persian architectural art which was applied to the iwan arch form. In addition, the development is also seen in the way in which other buildings are developed into facilities, such as palaces and buildings for social purposes.
One example of mosque architecture that was built in that era is the Jami Mosque in Isfahan. The planning pattern consists of the appearance of the use of iwan arches as a whole form. A very prominent feature of the building is the tower. The tower in the Seljuk style features several different shades.
Another building that shows the development of Islamic architecture at that time is the Baghdad Palace. The uniqueness and specificity of the architecture of the palace buildings can be seen in the application of muqarnas or stalactites decorations as applied to grave buildings. This arrangement of stalactite ornaments is combined into a larger stalactite arch.
Islamic Architecture in Spain
The development of Islamic architecture at this time can be seen especially in the architecture of the Mosque of Cordoba and the Palace of Granada. The mosque, which was founded by Abdurrahman ad-Dakhil in 786 AD, has the basic pattern of the original Arabic mosque in the style of the Umayyad Mosque. This mosque has undergone refinement three times in a row in the next period, namely in 822, 976, and 990.
Among the improvements was the addition of pillars as a way to expand the mosque. At first, five rows were added, then 17 longitudinal rows and eight side posts. Another highlight is the presence of monolith marble as the dome covering the mihrab, which is decorated with lace-patterned carvings that are open on the stone. Another specialty is the presence of double pillars that support the horseshoe-patterned arches. The palace that was founded in Granada is known as the Lion Palace, better known as the Alhambra. The appearance of this palace begins with a magnificent gate, followed by a courtyard equipped with various elements such as a pond that uses a fountain supported by lion statues; the gate is famous for the lion gate.
Twelve marble lions supported the fountain, crouching around and spewing water from its mouth. The fountain with 12 lions is a courtyard as a point of orientation toward facility spaces, such as a harem room equipped with private rooms. The Alhambra Palace was built around the 13th century.
At this time, the buildings that stand generally display a slightly different style from the previous architecture. Muslims in the Ottoman era displayed three types of mosques, namely the type of field mosque, madrasa mosque, and dome mosque. What is new in the context of the development of Ottoman-style Islamic architecture is the emergence of building plans by an architect who had studied in Greece, namely Sinan, who has produced works in various forms of buildings.
The Sultan Sulaiman Mosque in Istanbul is a masterpiece of Islamic architecture in the Ottoman era. The mosque displays a symbolic link between the splendor of the mosque as a symbol of the great sultan and the majesty of the mosque as a religious facility. The combination is shown through the slender and tall tower as if emerging from the arches of the dome and shooting off to the heights.
Islamic Architecture in India
The architecture of Indian mosques generally takes the style of a field mosque, then uses iwan arches, the materials used consist of stone. It has long been used in making temples. At the Kutubuddin Mosque, for example, many domed roof patterns cover almost all rooms, and the gate is similar to an Indian-style temple building. The pattern of the tower is round like a pillar that is pointed at the top and sticks high up. This form appears in the form of a tower called the Qutub Minar which is 73 meters high.
This tower consists of five levels, the first three levels are rooms that are decorated with red rock, and the tower building stands alone apart from the mosque building. The most famous work of Indian Islamic architecture is the Taj Mahal in Agra.
This building stands at the end of a large garden with a fountain, bordered by an iwan arch-shaped gate, topped with massive flower-shaped domes, the walls decorated with niches in the form of notches in the wall. Another architectural masterpiece is the palace. India features palaces that are a mix of Persian and Indian styles.