The history and origin of Eid al-Adha
Every year on the 10th of Dzulhijjah, Muslims celebrate Eid al-Adha. The word Eid al-Adha comes from the words ‘id and ‘adha.
‘Id is rooted in the word ‘aadaya’uudu’ which has the basic meaning of ‘to look at or ‘to visit or ‘return’.
It is said so because the holiday keeps coming back, again and again, every year. In Indonesia, the meaning of Id is often equated with ‘Ayyad’, which means ‘holiday’. And the word Adha has the meaning of ‘urban’.
That way, Eid al-Adha has the meaning of returning to slaughtering the sacrificial animal or often referred to as the Feast of Sacrifice. Eid al-Adha is also known as the ‘Eid of Hajj’. Because, at a similar time, Muslims from all over the world were performing the pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
The word qurban comes from the Arabic ‘qurban’ from the root word qaraba, yaqrabu, which means approach. Citing the book entitled “Secrets and Advantages of Friday” by Komarudin Ibn Mikam, it is said that making qurban means doing something that brings you closer to Allah SWT.
Eid al-Adha or the Feast of Sacrifice is followed by the slaughter of sacrificial animals around the world as a facility to get closer to Allah. The qurban meat is then passed on to the general public.
As Al-Hasan bin Ali said, “The Messenger of Allah ordered us in Idain (Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha) to use the best clothes we have, use the best perfumes that we have, and sacrifice on Eid al-Adha with the most sacrificial animals. expensive for what we have.” (HR. Al-Hakim)
The command to sacrifice itself is related to the story of sincerity and totality in making sacrifices through life by Prophet Ibrahim and his son, Prophet Ismail. Prophet Ibrahim was ordered by Allah to slaughter his son, Ismail.
At that time, Ibrahim was in his old age and Ismail was in his teens. It is said that Prophet Ibrahim had a dream that he had to slaughter Ishmael. The dream is a part of Allah’s revelation.
While awake, Ibrahim felt deep sorrow. Because, after being separated from his beloved fruit for so long, he had to risk his son.
Allah will test how far the obedience of Prophet Ibrahim is. As a servant who has faith and is obedient to Allah, he must carry out Allah’s commands. Ibrahim then went to Prophet Ismail and asked for his ideas.
As it turned out, the answer from Prophet Ismail was great. Prophet Ismail instead asked his father to do what Allah commanded him. Ismail said, “O my father! Do what Allah has ordered you to do. You will meet me Insha Allah as someone patient and obedient to Allah’s commands.” (Surat Ash-Saffat: 102)
Prophet Ibrahim then wept when he heard his son’s talk. Ibrahim also sincerely and truly did what Allah commanded. But when he was about to do it, Allah allowed him to exchange it for sheep.
That way, Ibrahim and Ismail have successfully passed the test of faith. Sheep as an alternative to Prophet Ismail to be slaughtered was the origin of performing qurban worship on Eid al-Adha.
The law of making sacrifices must be for people who are able or have the breadth of fortune to sacrifice. As mentioned in the Qur’an Surah Al-Kautsar verses 1-2, “Actually We have given many blessings. Therefore, establish prayer for your Lord and sacrifice.”
This Feast of Sacrifice is ruled for 4 days, from sunset on the day of Arafah (9 Dzulhijjah) until the feast of ‘Id (10 Dzulhijjah), connected with three days of tasyrik.