The history of Ramadan
History of Ramadan Fasting According to the Qur’an and Hadith
As Muslims, it is important to know the history of fasting in Ramadan as a mandatory worship performed in the holy month of Ramadan every year.
The history of fasting in Ramadan for Muslims has a very deep meaning, because fasting in this month is obligatory.
The law of fasting in Ramadan is fardhu for an adult Muslim, unless there are obstacles to doing so such as illness, old age, traveling, pregnancy, breastfeeding, or menstruation.
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There are a number of verses and hadiths about fasting, which instruct Muslims to fast.
«O you who believe, it is obligatory upon you to fast as it was obligatory upon those before you so that you may be pious.
During fasting from morning to evening, Muslims are forbidden to eat, drink any liquids, smoke, and have sexual intercourse with husband and wife.
In addition, it is also commanded to avoid sinful acts to complete the reward of fasting, such as saying bad things and fighting.
Fasting for Muslims during Ramadan is usually followed by multiplying prayers, reciting the Qur’an, and tarawih prayers at night.
In performing the fasting of Ramadan, every Muslim must recite the prayer of the intention of fasting Ramadan, both in the heart and recited slowly orally and clearly.
History of Ramadan Fasting Based on the Qur’an and Hadith
The history of fasting in the month of Ramadan dates back to the time of the Prophet Muhammad SAW. The beginning of the order to perform the fasting of Ramadan is in the month of Sya’ban in the second year of Hijri.
At that time, Muslims migrated from Makkah to Medina and were ordered by Allah to move the Qibla from Al-Aqsa Mosque to the Holy Mosque.
According to a hadith about fasting narrated by Mu’adh bin Jabal, the Prophet Muhammad SAW received the order to fast Ramadan after performing the fast of ‘Ashura and fasting three days each month.
Until finally, Ramadan fasting became obligatory in the 2nd year of Hijri, along with the rules of Eid prayers, zakat fitrah, and sacrifices.
In addition to being listed in Q. S Al-Baqarah verse 183, the history of Ramadan fasting becomes obligatory to be explained in Q. «the month of Ramadan, the month in which the Qur’an was revealed as a guide for mankind and the explanations of the guidance and the differentiators. Therefore, whoever of you is present in the month, let him fast in that month, and whoever is sick or on a journey, then, as many days as he leaves, on other days. God wants ease for you, and does not want hardship for you. And you shall suffice the number and you shall glorify Allah for His guidance given to you, that you may be grateful ».
The history of Ramadan fasting is also explained in several authentic hadiths which state that Ramadan fasting is obligatory for Muslims.
Hadith Narrated by Ahmad Nasa’i and Baihaqi in Syu’abul Iman, authenticated by Al Albani in Shahihul Jaami ‘Number 55.
«The month of Ramadan has come to you, the blessed month, in which Allah obligates fasting in that month to you. In that month the gates of heaven were opened, the gates of hell were closed and the rebellious demons were bound. In that month there is a night better than a thousand moons. Whoever is prevented from obtaining his good, then he has been prevented ».
Hadith Narrated by Bukhari Muslim
«Whoever fasts Ramadan because of faith and expects a reward, then his past sins will be forgiven».
Hadith Narrated by Bukhari No.
“Fast because you see it and celebrate Eid because you see it, if the crescent moon disappears from your sight then perfect the number of Sha’ban to thirty days”.
Monitoring the crescent moon to determine the fasting schedule of Ramadan
The history of Ramadan fasting is inseparable from various important events that occur in the holy month of Ramadan.
The revelation of the Qur’an The obligation of fasting Ramadan coincides with the history of the revelation of the Qur’an for the first time as a revelation given by Allah to the Prophet Muhammad SAW.
The event known as Nuzulul Quran took place in the Cave of Hira through the intercession of the angel Gabriel.
At that time, the angel Gabriel recited the first revelation, namely Surat Al-Alaq verses 1 to 5.
The revelation of this verse of the Qur’an to Rasulullah also became the momentum of the appointment of Prophet Muhammad SAW as the messenger of Allah at the age of 40 years.
The Battle of Badr
The Battle of Badr or called Ghazwah Badr Al-Kubra was a great battle between the Muslims and the infidels of Quraysh.
The event that took place in the middle of Ramadan also marked the beginning of the success of the Muslims.
In this war, the Prophet Muhammad SAW brought along 313 Muslim troops with 600 horses and 700 camels, to face 950 opposing forces.
Of the 313 Muslim troops who took part in the war, 14 were killed. There were 70 opposing forces captured, one of them Abu Jahal.
With the victory of the Muslims in that war, Badr which is located approximately 145 km northwest of the city of Medina became a witness to the greatness of God and the faith of the Muslims.
Conquest of Makkah
Together with his companions, the Prophet Muhammad succeeded in conquering the city of Makkah in the battle of Fathu Mecca on 20 Ramadan in the year 8 AH.
This war was triggered by the Quraish in violation of the treaty of Hudaibiyah and conspired with other tribes to fight those who were at peace with the Prophet.
In this war, the Prophet Muhammad commanded as many as 10,000 Muslim troops. The army was led by Khalid bin Walid as the warlord.
Muslim forces managed to win, despite fighting in a state of fasting. The Quraysh army finally surrendered.
After the war, Prophet Muhammad ordered the Muslim army to destroy as many as 360 idols around the Kaaba.