The History of the Emergence of the Shia In Islam
It’s challenging to compare Shiites and Muslims. However, if analyzed more deeply, particularly from the side of belief, the distinction between both resembles sprinkle and oil. So it is difficult to put it with each other.
Shia inning accordance with Arabic etymology means protector and fan of someone, besides that, it also means every individual that collects on a situation. (Tahdzibul Lughah, 3/61 by Azhari and Taajul Arus, 5/405, by Az-Zabidi)
When it comes to the terms of the Shari’a, Shia means those that specify that Ali bin Abu Talib is more crucial compared to all the buddies and has more right to become the caliph of the Muslims, as well as after his fatality (Al-Fiscal Fil Milali Wal Ahwa Wan Nihal by Ibn Hazm)
Shia started to arise after the assassination of the caliph Uthman bin ‘Affan. Throughout the Caliphate of Abu Bakr, Umar, the very early days of the Caliphate of Uthman, specifically in the very early years of his position, the Islamic Ummah was unified, there were no conflicts. After Uthman’s caliphate, various occasions occurred that led to the department, a team of slanderers and autocrats arose, and they eliminated Uthman, so after that, the Muslims were split.
At the moment of Ali’s caliphate, there were also Shia teams but they hid their understanding, they didn’t expose it to his fans and Ali.
During that time they were split right into 3 teams.
Individuals that think about Ali as God. When he learned about this sect, Ali shed them and made trenches before the door of the Bani Kanda mosque to shed them. Imam Bukhari told in his Sahih book, from Ibn Abbas said, “Once Ali combated and shed the zindiq (Shia that divinized Ali). If I had done it I would certainly not have shed them because the Prophet never forbade torture such as Allah’s penalty (burning), but I would certainly cut off their throats because the Prophet said:
“Whoever changes his religious beliefs (apostates) after that eliminate him”
Sabbah team (detractors). Ali listened to Abu Sauda (Abdullah bin Saba’) that he had criticized Abu Bakr and Umar, so Ali searched for him. Some say that Ali was looking for him to eliminate him, but he ran away
The Mufadhdhilah team, specifically those that focus on Ali over Abu Umar and Bakr. Although it is told mutawatir from the Prophet Muhammad that he said,
“The best of this ummah after the prophet is Abu Umar and Bakr.”
This type of background was brought by Imam Bukhari in his Sahih book, from Muhammad bin Hanafiyyah that he asked his dad, that is the best human after the Carrier of Allah, he responded to Abu Bakr, after that? he responded to, Omar.
In Shia background, they were split right into 5 main sects specifically Kaisaniyyah, Imamiyyah (rafidhah), Zaidiyyah, Ismaili, and Ghulat. From these 5 sects, many various other sect branches were birthed.
Of the 5 sects, the essential to be appointed is the Imamiyyah or Rafidhah sect which has constantly had a hard time ruining Islam and the Muslims, in various ways this team proceeds to attempt to spread out various kinds of heresy, particularly after the facility of the Shia specify, Iran which overthrows the program of Shah Reza Pahlavi.
Rafidhah inning accordance with Arabic means leaving, while in sharia terms it means those that decline the management of Abu Bakr and Umar, damage far from both of them, disapproval and disrespect the buddies of the Prophet.
Abdullah bin Ahmad bin Hanbal said, “I have asked my dad, that is Rafidhah?” So he replied, “They are the ones that slam Abu Umar and Bakr.” (ash-Sharimul Maslul ‘Ala Syatimir Rasul p. 567, Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taimiyah)
The call “Rafidhah” is closely related to Zaid bin ‘Ali bin Husain bin ‘Ali bin Abu Talib and his fans when they rebelled versus Hisham bin Abdul Malik bin Marwan in 121 H. (Badzlul Majhud, 1/86)
Shaykh Abul Hasan al-Ash’ari said, “When Zaid bin ‘Ali appeared in Kufa, amongst his fans that had pledged allegiance to him, he listened to from some of them disapproval versus Abu Bakr and ‘Umar. He also rejected it, until finally, they (his fans) left him. So he said to them:
“You left me?”
So it’s said that they were called Rafidhah because of what Zaid said to them “Rafadhtumuunii.” (Maqalatul Islamiyyin, 1/137). Similarly, said by Sheikhul Islam Ibn Taimiyah in Majmu ‘Fatawa (13/36).
The originator of this Shia understanding is a Jew from the land of Yemen (Shan’a) called Abdullah bin Saba ‘al-Himyari, that exposed Islam throughout the Caliphate of Uthman bin Affan.
Abdullah bin Saba’ presented his teachings freely, he after rallied the masses, revealing that management (imamah) after the Prophet Muhammad should have fallen under the hands of Ali bin Abi Talib because of the instructions of the Prophet Sallallahu ‘Alayhi wa Sallam (inning accordance with their uncertainties).
Inning accordance with Abdullah bin Saba ‘, Caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman have taken control of the position. In Majmu ‘Fatawa, 4/435, Abdullah bin Shaba shows a severe attitude in glorifying Ali, with a motto that Ali can be an imam (caliph) and he is a ma’shum (awakened from all sins).
This idea developed continuously now and then, up to the divine being of Ali bin Abi Talib. Ali, understood this excessive attitude, after combating and also shed those that didn’t want to repent, some of them run away.
Abdullah bin Saba ‘, the creator of these Shi’a religious beliefs, is a Jewish representative that has plenty of bad and treason. He was infiltrated amongst the Muslims by the Jews to ruin the spiritual Muslim culture and purchase. The beginning of its look was the completion of the regime of Caliph ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan. After that continued throughout the management of the Caliph ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. Under the role of Islam, the spirit of Amar ma’ruf nahi munkar, and the mask of tanassuk (worshipping), he brings out various evil objectives. Not just did he spread out misdirected ideas (also kufr) amongst individuals, but he also performed mass provocation movements to topple Caliph ‘Uthman bin ‘Affan. Consequently, the Caliph was eliminated in a specific of oppression. Consequently, disputes between friends also occurred. (See Minhajus Sunnah by Shaykhul Islam Ibn Taimiyyah, 8/479, Syarh Al-‘Aqidah Ath-Thahawiyyah Ibn Abil ‘Izz p. 490, and Kitab At-Tawhid by Asy-Shaykh Salih bin Fauzan Al-Fauzan p. 123)
Rafidhah is Shia, while Shia isn’t always Rafidhah. Because not all Shiites dislike Abu Bakr and ‘Umar as the Zaidiyyah Shiites, the Shia sect with the slightest regret.[Compiled from various resources, consisting of guide Al-Furqon Bainal Klahija Wal Batil written by Sheikhul Islam Ibn Taimiyyah)