RUNS OF FASTING
There are 2 pillars of fasting:
1. Intention to fast every night for fardu fasting
Muslimcreed – The place of intention is in the heart. So it is not valid if the intention is only spoken verbally without being accompanied by an intention in the heart, such as people who read intentions verbally while sleeping or while daydreaming. But it is customary to say the intention verbally to help the heart so that it can intend. So it is valid if you intend to fast while in prayer because the intention is enough with the heart without having to say it verbally.
The time for fardu fasting is at night, starting from sunset/maghrib until before dawn/dawn. So it is permissible to intend to fast after breaking the fast, after maghrib prayer, after tarowih prayer or after eating sahur as long as it is before dawn. The intention of fasting fard must be read every night for a month in the month of Ramadan. If the day is fasting, then the intention is obligatory at night.
From Hafshah of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, he said:
مَنْ لَمْ يُبَيِّتِ الصِّيَامَ قَبْلَ الْفَجْرِ فَلَا صِيَامَ لَهُ
Meaning: “Whoever does not intend to fast at night before dawn, there is no fasting for him.” (Sunan Nasa’i 2291)
If on the first night you intend to fast for a whole month, then fasting on the first day is valid, the rest is invalid because you have to intend every night. But according to the Maliki Imam, it is sunnah on the first night of the month of Ramadan to read the intention of fasting for a whole month to guard against fasting in the night that he forgets and does not intend.
As is the opinion of the Hanafi priest who makes his intention in the morning for those who forget their intentions at night so that their fast is valid. Because according to the Hanafi priest, the intention of fasting is fard, namely starting from the setting of the sun/maghrib until before the sun slips/dzuhur.
At least the words of intention to fast in the month of Ramadan that are read every night are as follows;
نَوَيْتُ صَوْمَ رَمَضَانَ
Meaning: “I intend to fast in the month of Ramadan”
The most perfect lafdz of fasting intentions are;
نَوَيْتُ صَوْمَ غَدٍ عَنْ أَدَاءِ فَرْضِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانِ هذِهِ السَّنَةِ لِلهِ تَعَالَى
Meaning: “I intend to fast tomorrow to fulfill the fardu in the month of Ramadan this year, because of Allah ta’ala”.
The words of intention to fast for a whole month are:
نَوَيْتُ صَوْمَ جَمِيْعِ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانِ هَذِهِ السَّنَةِ تَقْلِيْدًا لِلْاِمَامِ مَالِكِ فَرْضًا لِلهِ تَعَالَى
It means :
“I intend to fast throughout the month of Ramadan this year by following Imam Maliki, fardu because of Allah ta’ala”
As for the time of intention to fast for circumcision, it starts from the setting of the sun/maghrib until before the sun/dzuhur slips. So it’s okay to intend to fast for circumcision in the morning as long as you haven’t eaten any food or haven’t canceled your fast. From Aisyah radliyallahu’anha, he said:
ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ يَا عَائِشَةُ هَلْ عِنْدَكُمْ شَيْءٌ قَالَتْ فَقُلْتُ يَا رَسُوْلَ اللهِ مَا عِنْدَنَا شَيْءٌ قَالَ فَإِنِّيْ صَائِمٌ
It means :
One day, the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam asked me: “O Aisha, do you have food?” Aisha said: So I replied: “We have no food, O Messenger of Allah.” He said: “Then I will fast.” (Sahih Muslim 1950)
Read also Islamic prayer before fasting
2. Leaving something that invalidates the fast
The things that break the fast are as follows:
a. Jima ‘(intercourse) either releases sperm or not.
b. If there is no element of skin-to-skin contact, such as a husband kissing or embracing his wife by using a cloth barrier or something else so as to prevent the skin from touching the skin, or just by seeing, imagining or If you dream that sperm comes out, it doesn’t break your fast. If you touch the skin of a woman who is mahrom, or if she touches the hair of a woman who is not mahrom and then sperm comes out, it does not invalidate the fast, because touching it does not invalidate ablution.
c. Intentionally vomiting even though nothing is vomited up again. Like accidentally flipping over and throwing up. But if vomiting overwhelms him (unintentionally vomiting) then it is not invalidated.
From the ashes of Hurairoh ra. from the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, he said:
مَنْ ذَرَعَهُ الْقَيْءُ فَلَا قَضَاءَ عَلَيْهِ وَمَنْاِسْتَقَاءَ فَعَلَيْهِ الْقَضَاءُ
It means :
“Whoever vomits overpowers him (unintentionally vomits) then there is no obligation to make up for it, but whoever forces himself to vomit then he must make up.” (Sunan Ibn Majah 1666)
As for removing phlegm either from within (inner limitation) or from the brain, it does not break the fast. In contrast to swallowing phlegm intentionally and being able to expel it, if the phlegm has reached the outer limit (dzohir) i.e. makhrojnya “ح” (mid throat) then it is cancelled. But if you are unable to expel it or swallow the phlegm that is still inside, which is under the makhrojnya “ح” then it is not invalidated.
d. Inserting objects (‘ain) into the cavity
The cavities include all open holes including:
- 1. Nose
Breaking the fast if it has passed the final limit of the dzohir area, namely khoisyum or the base of the nose bone.
As for nose if it is not too deep then it does not break the fast, in contrast to swab it can invalidate the fast.
- 2. Mouth
Cancels the fast if it has passed the final limit of the dzohir area, namely the makhrojnya “ح” (middle of the throat).
As for swallowing the saliva that is pure and pure (not mixed with anything else) that is in the mouth, it does not invalidate the fast. But if the saliva is mixed with najis such as blood or mixed with other objects even though it is pure, such as food, or the saliva has come out of the mouth as if it was on the lips, then if it is swallowed again then the fast is invalidated.
As for the person who is tested by Allah with his gums that always bleed so that it is difficult to avoid the blood that is swallowed into the throat, then this is forgiven.
If there is food residue in between the teeth and then it is pushed by saliva so that it comes out and is swallowed with saliva by itself, it does not break the fast. But if you are able to spit it out but accidentally swallowed it, it invalidates the fast.
If water is swallowed while gargling while performing ablution, then if you rinse your mouth excessively, such as gargling while tilting your head upwards, it invalidates the fast because gargling like that is makruh while fasting, but if you rinse your mouth in moderation it does not invalidate the fast.
As for the water that is used to rinse the mouth during ablution, even though it is capable of expelling it if swallowed. Together with saliva, it does not invalidate the fast because it is difficult to maintain it, so there is no need to dry the mouth when finished ablution.
- 3. Ears
Cancel the fast if it has passed “Al Munthabiq” which is the beginning of the inside that is not visible from the outside.
- 4. Place out urine (Vagina / Penis).
If the fingertip of a woman who is purification from najis (cebok) reaches something that is visible from her farji when sitting on her two legs, this can invalidate her fast.
- 5. Nipples (women)
- 6. Rectal
then break the fast when the fingers reach the anus while it is cebok from defecation (defecation) or when the stool has partially come out but is put in again because it is difficult to pass it. So for ihtiyatnya (be careful) it is better to defecate at night. As for hemorrhoids that protrude out and are then put back into the anus, it does not invalidate the fast because it is madharat.
e. Apostasy, that is, leaving the religion of Islam.
f. Coming to menstruation or childbirth
g. Give birth to
h. Crazy even for a while
i. Loss of mind because of epilepsy from dawn to dusk
j. Loss of mind because deliberately drunk from dawn to dusk
As for the person who does something that breaks the fast because he is forced, forgot or is ignorant of ma’dzur (forgivable fool) that is stupid because he has just converted to Islam or because he is far from the scholars so that he does not know something that invalidates the fast, then the above does not invalidate the fast.
If we take a big bath then there is water that enters the cavity by accident, then the law is detailed:
1. If you take a big bath by bathing, then your fast is invalid because it is makruh to bathe while you are fasting.
2. If the big bath does not take a bath but is not a big bath that is obligatory, such as a big bath that is sunnah or a big bath because you want to make the body fresh, then the fast is invalidated.
3. If the obligatory big bath is like a big bath for a woman who has finished her menstruation or childbirth, then if the water is ingested by a washing that is not ordered, it is like the fourth washing (because what is prescribed is until the third washing) then her fast is invalidated, but if she has taken it the water by washing that is ordered, even though circumcision is like the second or third washing, it does not invalidate the fast.