Muslimcreed.com – For Muslims, studying jurisprudence is obligatory even though many are aware of it. Usul fiqh is a branch of science that discusses the arguments on the basis of the original law of fiqh. Of course, these arguments will be sourced from the holy book Al-Quran, Hadith of the Prophet, Ijma’, and Qiyas.
In this Ushul Fiqh, one of which is included in its scope is Ittiba which both must be studied as well as possible by Muslims. While the other two are taqlid and talfiq. Remembering that this knowledge will make us servants of Allah SWT who follow His teachings correctly. Then actually, what is it all of a sudden? What are the types of ittiba’? What is its position in Islamic law?
Meaning of Ittiba’
It turns out that the word ittiba’ has been absorbed into Indonesian, you know… Yep, according to the Big Indonesian Dictionary (KBBI), ittiba’ is absorbed into itibak which acts as a verb and means to follow (example). If traced linguistically, the word ittiba’ can also be interpreted as iqtifa’ or tracing the trail, qudwah or exemplary, and uswah or role model. On that basis, the term ittiba’ means ‘accepting the words or words of others by knowing the source or reason for these words, both from the arguments of the Qur’an and the hadith of the Prophet.’
In short, ittiba ‘is an attempt by Muslims to follow or obey everything that has been ordered, prohibited, and justified by the Prophet Muhammad. In other words, ittiba’ is tantamount to carrying out the teachings of Islam according to what the Prophet Muhammad SAW did as well.
The existence of ittiba ‘which is one of the things that must be carried out for Muslims, of course there is a reason. With this ittiba’, it is hoped that every Muslim, even those who are still laymen, can practice the teachings of Islam with full confidence without being shrouded in any doubts. Not only that, an act of worship or charity that if done with full confidence will cause sincerity and solemnity in the Muslim. After all, sincerity and solemnity are indeed a valid condition for the implementation of worship or charity.
In short, ittiba’ has the following objectives:
- – Get guidance.
- – Get luck from Allah SWT.
- – Stand firm on the truth.
- – Get protection and help from Allah SWT.
- – Join the ranks of the prophets.
- – Finding a family who came along the sudden path’.
- – Avoid feeling sad and afraid.
- – Obtaining the door of repentance and forgiveness from Allah SWT.
Types of Ittiba’
1. Ittiba ‘to Allah SWT and His Messenger
As His servants, of course we must obey Allah SWT. How to? That is to follow what He commands and stay away from all His prohibitions. In this case, it has also been said by Allah SWT in Surah Al-Imran verse 174. The verse talks about the Badr Sughra (little Badr) incident which took place a year after the Uhud War. At that time, Abu Sufyan who was a leader of the Quraysh challenged the Prophet and his companions that he was willing to meet again with the Muslims the following year in Badr. But at that time, there was a famine, Abu Sufyan was afraid and did not continue his journey to Badr. Then, he ordered his friends to go to Medina and scare the Muslims by spreading false news.
Even though at that time Abu Sufyan did not go to Badr, the Prophet Muhammad and his companions continued to go to Badr and still the war was not carried out. Incidentally, Badr was experiencing the market season so that the Muslims actually traded and made big profits which were then taken back to Medina. Well, based on the verse it is explained that the returning Muslims actually brought favors and gifts from Allah SWT through their trading results because there was no war.
2. Ittiba ‘to other than Allah SWT and His Messenger
Since we are still living in the world, of course it will suddenly relate to things other than Allah and His Messenger. Ittiba ‘follows something that is not based on the Qur’an and Sunnah.
a) Ittiba’ To Lust
It is necessary to know, Grameds, that there are diseases that can damage a person’s deeds, one of which is ittiba’ to lust. Therefore, for those who have been “affected” by this disease, immediately clean and purify themselves. Lust can indeed shape human behavior. Therefore, Allah SWT always associates important problems in life with lust.
Lust can invite people to do evil. But for those who are able to withstand it, then be safe from all the tricks of the devil.
b) Ittiba ‘to Satan
you must already know if the devil or devil is a creature of God who lives in the unseen world and is even difficult to reach by the human eye. Satan belongs to the group of very outrageous jinn, which have deviated from the rules of Allah SWT as their creator. Satan will also continue to try to incite humans to keep walking in his perverted ways.
Therefore, Allah SWT always warns His people not to follow the instigation of Satan.
c) Ittiba ‘to the presumption
In the holy book of Al-Quran, Allah SWT explicitly denounces those who involve matters of belief and aqidah. The act was often done by pagans since ancient times, especially by worshiping idols according to their prejudices. As explained in Surah An-Najm verse 23.
d) Ittiba’ to the infidels
In essence, unbelievers are those who do not believe in Allah SWT and continue to deny or do not believe in the apostleship of the Prophet Muhammad. Allah, of course, strictly forbids His people to follow the unbelievers. As explained in Surah Al-Ankabut verse 12.
e) Ittiba’ To the Ancestors
The existence of traditions or ancestors which are still inherent in their children and grandchildren can of course lead to good and bad things. If the ancestral tradition leads to the wrong thing, of course we should not follow it. As explained in Surah Al-Baqarah verse 170.
The Position of Ittiba’ in Islamic Shari’a
The existence of ittiba ‘especially to the Prophet Muhammad has a high position in Islam, it can even be a person’s door in the acceptance of deeds in the sight of Allah SWT. Therefore, ittiba’ has a position in Islamic law, namely as follows:
- – As a condition for the acceptance of acts of worship.
- – As one of the principles in Islam, as in Surah Al-Kahf verse 110.
- – As a reason to enter heaven.
- – As proof of love for the Prophet Muhammad, as in Surah Al-Imran verse 31.
- – As a way to get true love for the Prophet.
- – As a way of carrying out orders to obey the Apostle and stay away from related threats. As in Surah An-Nisa verse 59.
- – As a believer, as in Surah An-Nur verses 51-52.
- – As a sign of piety, as in Surah Al-Hajj verse 32.