Muslimcreed.com – Every turn of the year is certainly not without meaning. Let alone the turn of the year, when someone asked about the change of night and day only, the Prophet SAW even asked again: Madza ‘adadta laha (what provision do you prepare)?
So for us, the turn of the Islamic new year, in particular, especially directly related to the travel history of the Prophet Muhammad SAW, must be a source of new views. None other than being a provision for treading the next life even better.
But what is important to know is actually, why is the Islamic year considered Hijri, which is based on the Hijra of the Prophet? Why is it not based on his birth so that it will definitely be very festive because so far it has been diversified to celebrate it with the commemoration of the Prophet’s Mawlid?
This reason must be known. That the birth of the Prophet SAW, as we generally are, is still “normal” in the context of humanity. Although very special, the Prophet SAW permanently had a father, namely Sayyid Abdullah. This is what distinguishes him from Jesus, his birth without a father. The Quran calls it Isa ibn Maryam.
Indeed, there are not a few babies who are born without a father. Especially at this time, when promiscuity has indeed been finished. But history records, Sayyidah Maryam during her life was always “aloof” in the crowds of the Congregation of Worship. He was always solemn’ to turn his heart to the Most Holy One.
The holy woman became pregnant without “association” using any man. She gave birth to Jesus without going through the previous process of “copulation”. So in the year A.D., we call it using Miladiyah, because it bases on the privilege (birth) of the saint, according to the holy woman, who is always guarded & guaranteed the sanctity of the Most Holy One.
The Hijri year, again, is not based on the birth of the Prophet SAW. In this context, a hijra can be understood in two meanings, namely in a daily and meaningful way.
Hijra Makani is a process of migration or physical movement, based on one place to another. It can be between countries or between regions only.
At the time of the Prophet Muhammad SAW there were still three incidents of the Hijra. The first, the hijra to Habasyah (present-day Ethiopia ), which was carried out in the month of Rajab of the 5th post-prophetic year. Led by Uthman ibn Affan’s friend, the hijra which was followed by twelve men and women was at the personal behest of the Prophet Muhammad SAW.
None other than to escape the trials due to the various pressures of the Makkah Quraysh since the middle or end of the fourth year of prophethood. The pressure grew heavier until the middle of the fifth year as if Makkah was no longer friendly to Muslims who were still weak.
Habasyah or Ethiopia
Habasyah or Ethiopia, an area in the far north of Africa, was chosen because the area was seen as more hospitable. Its ruler, Ashamah an-Najasyi, was known to be a just king, no one was persecuted there.
hijra to Thaif
The 2nd, the hijra to Thaif, was carried out by the Prophet Saw himself using a walk with his friend, Zaid bin Haritsah. This event occurred in the month of Shawwal, the 10th year post-prophetic.
In that year the Prophet SAW did receive a trial that was not light. Apart from the increasingly severe pressure of the Quraysh of Makkah, it was a sad year for the Prophet in particular. Two loved ones, namely Abu Talib & Sayyidah Khadijah, died. Both became “strongholds” of defense that always strengthened the efforts of the Prophet. Abu Talib was the Prophet’s own uncle, who died in the month of Rajab. Three months later, in the month of Ramadan, followed by his beloved wife, Ummul Mukminin Khadijah al-Kubra.
The 10th year after the prophethood, due to the trials and sufferings piled up, the Prophet himself called it ‘Amul Huzni (Year of Sorrow). A term that was then well known in Islamic history. Especially when they arrived in Thaif, the residents there even hurt the Prophet, treating them cruelly. The treatment has never been experienced before. Complete has been saddened by the mind of prophet SAW.
hijra to Yatsrib
The third, the hijra to Yatsrib or later the famous Medina, 340 Km (210 miles) based on Makkah. There are differences among historians. Some reveal that the event occurred in 621 AD. Some belief in 622 AD or the 13th year post-prophetic. However, both agreed that the Hijra of the Prophet was performed in the month of Rabi’ul Awwal.
Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Yasar, who popularly used Ibn Ishaq (d.768 AD), is recorded as the first Muslim historian, and Imam at-Thabari (d.923 AD) among historians who are quite fully lit. According to him, before reaching Yatsrib first the Prophet stopped at Quba on Monday 12 Rabi’ul Awwal or 24 September 622 AD, during dhuha. Quba is located approximately 5 Km southeast of Medina.
There the Prophet stayed with the family of Amr bin Auf until Thursday, 15 Rabi’ul Awwal or September 27, 622 AD. In this place also the Prophet created the first mosque, namely the Quba Mosque.
Then on Friday, 16 Rabi’ul Awwal or 28 September 622 AD, the Prophet proceeded to Medina. In the middle of traveling, precisely in Bathni Wadin, a valley belonging to the family of Banu Salim bin Auf in more or less Medina came down a revelation about the obligation of Friday prayers (Qs. Al-Jumu’ah: 9). So the Prophet & his entourage then performed Friday prayers in that place, which began with the delivery of the sermon. In Islamic history, this is the first Friday prayer. After that, the Prophet headed for Medina.
That’s the hijra of makani. if this hijra is understood in the context of physical displacement, then the hijra is meaningfully better understood in the non-physical context.
The word hijra itself implies a painful disconnection. Based on the root of the word “chastisement” it is then interpreted: as “he cuts himself off according to a friendly and loving relationship or communication. He’s no longer related to them.” Thus Montgomery Watt (d.2006), orientalist and major historian on Islam based in the United Kingdom.
In that context, the hijra does break and leave. At that time, not all were willing to do hijra, especially those who still felt heavy with their possessions & kinship interactions. By hijra means to break the relationship, to leave the property and all ownership.
That’s where the hijra finds inner meaning, concerning changes in outlook and behavior, that the better one has been spread by God in front. This kind of belief is not a mere utopia, but an optimism because of the burning faith.
hijra to Medina
The hijra to Medina was what was then used as the basis for determining the Calendar in Islam. Although there are differences of opinion on the date & year A.D. of the incident, Islamic historians agree that the hijra to Medina occurred in the month of Rabi’ul Awwal, not the month of Muharram.
Indeed, Muharram is the first month of the Islamic Calendar. However, regarding the momentum of hijra in the month of Rabi’ul Awwal, which was then used as the basis for the calendar, it certainly has a deep meaning.
Undeniably, the traditions of the pre-Islamic Arabs did follow the almanac more with the lunisolar model (Suryacandra Calendar) & the year is connected with the most important events of the year. It can be seen for example in the birth of the Prophet Saw in 12 Rabi’ul Awwal who was connected using the raid of the elephant army led by King Abrahah, then it was later considered the Year of the Elephant.
Likewise regarding the Islamic Calendar. It was Sayyidina Umar bin Khattab who was instrumental in this matter. In the era of his caliphate, the Islamic Calendar was inaugurated. But history also records that Sayyidina Ali bin Abi Talib actually had the clever idea. This cousin who is also the son-in-law of the Prophet knows very well, how are the conditions for the struggle of Muslims. He, who is also the exclusive secretary of the Prophet, understands where the change must begin.
It is said that during the deliberations, several suggestions emerged regarding the momentum that would be used as the basis for the Islamic calendar. There are five proposals on this. First, the Momentum of the birth of the Prophet SAW or which was later claimed as the Year of the Elephant (‘Amul Fill), 571 AD. Second, the Momentum of the appointment of the Prophet Muhammad SAW as the Apostle (‘Amul Bi’tsah), 610 AD. Third, the Momentum of Isra’ Mi’raj Nabi SAW. Fourth, is the Momentum of the death of the Prophet SAW.
The momentum of the Hijra of the Prophet SAW according to Makkah to Medina
And fifth, the Momentum of the Hijra of the Prophet SAW according to Makkah to Medina, or separate from the land of shirk to the land of believers. At that time, Makkah was considered a shirking country. This was the proposal presented by Sayyidina Ali ibn Abi Talib, who was later chosen by Caliph Umar. Agreed, the Hijri Calendar is its name.