This is the word patience in the view of the scholars
|Ilustration of patience|
Muslim Creed – Etymologically, patience comes from the Arabic language, صبرا – يصبر – صبر which means to be patient, steadfast, brave.
In Indonesian, patient means: “resistant to trials, steadfast, calm, not in a hurry, not in a rush of lust.
So the understanding of patience we can conclude PATIENCE is an attitude of holding back emotions and desires, and surviving in difficult situations by not complaining. Patience is the ability to control oneself which is also seen as an attitude that has high values and reflects the strength of the soul of the person who has it.
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The word patience with various kinds is very much, as quoted from Al-Mu’jam Al Mufahras li Al Fazhil Qu’an, is mentioned more than 100 times in the Koran. No wonder the discussion about patience received great attention from scholars, such as Imam Al Ghazali in the book Ihyâ ‘Ulûmiddn, Ibnul-Qayyim in the book Madârijus-Sâlikîn and Abu Talib Al Makki in the book Qût al-Qulûb.
This is a response to the high attention of the Qur’an to patience. Even if a person wants to achieve a high degree in life, both materially and meaningfully must be accompanied by an attitude of patience.
Patience has an important portion for humans, because since its creation it has always been full of challenges. In His words are described the difficulties that humans have experienced from the beginning. As the word of Allah in the Qur’an Surah Al Balad verse 4:
لَقَدۡ خَلَقۡنَا ٱلۡإِنسَٰنَ فِي كَبَدٍ ٤
4. We have certainly created man into hardship.
Lafaz kabad in Arabic, as stated by Al Ashfahani in the book Mufradât Gharîb al-Qur′ân, means difficulty. According to him, the use of the word implies that the creation of human life is not separated from difficulties and suffering. This happens if it is not faced with efforts to penetrate all obstacles and challenges.
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The view of patience according to the scholars
The word patient has a very broad meaning, so there are many opinions from scholars to more easily understand the meaning of the word patient. In the Qur’an there are many words of patience because Islam is very concerned about patience.
For more of our knowledge about patience, I will compile some of the opinions of the scholars below:
1. According to Al Alusi in Rûh al-Ma’âni, the word patience is not only verbal, but also with the heart.
In general, the aspect of patience includes two things, namely patience in the face of suffering and patience in the face of pleasure. This is done by instilling in the heart ma’rifatullâh or knowing God and trying to perfect the soul for which God created him. The word “patience” means to refrain from something that is not pleasing to the heart, it also means steadfastness.
2. Imam al-Ghazali defines patience as a determination to carry out religious demands in the face of temptations of lust.
In general, patience can be divided into two main points:
First, physical patience, namely patience in receiving and carrying out religious orders that involve body parts, such as being patient in carrying out the pilgrimage which involves fatigue or being patient in fighting for the truth. Also included in this category, patient in accepting the trials that befell the body such as illness, persecution and the like.
Second, spiritual patience involves the ability to restrain the desires of lust that can lead to evil, such as patiently holding back anger, or holding back other passions.
3. Ibn al-Qayyim al-Jauziyyah stated
patience is holding the soul from complaining, holding back the tongue from wailing and holding back from slapping the cheek, tearing clothes and so on.
4. Quraish Shihab, in Tafsir Al-Mishbah,
explains that patience means refraining from something that is not pleasing to the heart. It also means fortitude. In addition, he explains that patience is generally divided into two:
First, physical patience, namely patience in receiving and carrying out religious orders that involve body parts such as being patient in performing the pilgrimage which causes fatigue. This includes being patient in accepting physical trials such as illness, persecution and so on.
Second, spiritual patience involves the ability to resist the will of lust that can lead to evil, such as patience in holding back anger, or restraining sexual desires that are not in place.
The opinion of Quraish Shihab is the same as what was conveyed by Ibn al-Qayyim that patience, based on its form, consists of two kinds, physical patience and mental patience.
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Physical patience is divided into two:
1) voluntary physical patience, for example being patient in doing heavy work of his own choice and will and
2) physical patience by compulsion factors, for example patience in enduring the pain of being hit, patiently withstanding illness, withstanding cold, heat and so on.
Like physical patience, mental patience is also divided into two kinds, namely:
1) Voluntary mental patience, for example, patience to refrain from doing bad deeds based on considerations of religious law and reason.
2) Patience of the soul by compulsion factors, such as patience to part with loved ones if love is hindered.
Above are some views of the scholars regarding the definition and types of patience. Basically, of course we know that patience is to endure everything that is bad by accepting and believing that everything comes from Allah.