What is the ruling on listening to music in Islam? Here’s an explanation of the scholars!
The law of listening to music in Islam explained by the scholars is permissible.
Some scholars condemn it as haram and some other scholars allow it or justify it.
This difference of opinion is due to the existence of verses and hadiths that give freedom to Muslims to express themselves.
However, there are also those who limit it so that it remains in accordance with the rules of Islamic teachings.
So, how should we respond to the law of listening to music in Islam? Here is the explanation.
The Law of Listening to Music in Islam
Imam Al Ghazali did not question the law of listening to music on the basis of the Qur’an Surah Luqman verse 19, which means:
“And be modest in your walking and soften your voice. Verily, the worst sound is the voice of a donkey.”
Imam Al-Ghazali took the meaning of this verse from understanding mukhalafah. In this verse, Allah SWT praises a good voice which means it is permissible to listen to good singing.
In the Al-Quran it is not explained the law of listening to music or songs strictly and in muamalah, the basic rule is al-ashlu fi al-asyaa al ibahah (all laws are permissible).
The limitation of this rule is as long as the music is not against Islamic law or Shari’a.
Some scholars who say that music is haram, base their argument from Surah Luqman verse 6, which reads:
وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَشْتَرِي لَهْوَ الْحَدِيثِ لِيُضِلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّخِذَهَا هُزُوًا أُولَئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُهِينٌ
“And among mankind there are those who use useless words to lead people astray from the way of Allah without knowledge and make fun of the way of Allah. They will have a humiliating punishment.”
Opinion of Scholars About the Law of Listening to Music
The following are the opinions of the great scholars regarding the law of listening to music:
1. Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Shafi’i, Imam Malik
In the book Mughni al-Muhtaj argues that the law of listening to music is makruh because it is useless.
Whoever spends his time listening to such songs, then he is a fool and his testimony cannot be accepted.
Qadhi Abu Thayyib said, “Listening to the singing of women who are not married is forbidden according to the students of Imam Shafi’i.”
Imam Shafi’i said that. hitting a musical instrument using a stick is makruh, because it resembles a group of people who have no religion.
2. Imam As-Syaukani
In NaylulAuthar it is said that the people in Medina as well as scholars who also agree with them as well as Sufi experts.
They provide relief in terms of music and songs, even if only with musical instruments.
3. Ibn Taymiyya
If a servant has been busy with non-shari’ah practices, then of course he will lack the enthusiasm to do things that are shari’ah and also have many benefits.
So we often see that people who cannot escape singing will not miss the recitation of the Qur’an and are not excited to hear it.
4. Abu Mansour al-Baghdadi al-Shafi’i
In the book As-Simaa ‘it is stated that Abdullah bin Ja’Far’s Companions did not mind the song and he also listened to a song made during the Caliphate of Ali RA.
Likewise other friends, namely KadhiShureih, al-Sya’bi, Sa’id bin al-Musayyab, Az-Zuhri and also Atha’bin Abi Rabah.
5. Imam al-Ghazali
He also expressed the opinion that the law of listening to music and singing is no different from listening to various sounds from living beings or inanimate objects and also hearing someone’s words.
If the message conveyed in music is good and has religious value, then this is not much different from religious advice and lectures.
6. According to Imam Malik
As for Imam Malik forbade and forbid singing.Imam Malik said, “If you buy a slave girl, and it turns out that she is a singer, then you must return it to the seller.”
7. According to Imam Abu Hanifa
While Imam Abu Haifah said, “Singing is makruh and listening to songs is a sin.”
Likewise according to Imam Sufyan Ats-Tsauri, Hammad, Ibrahim Asy-Sya’bi and other kuffah scholars.
They are of the opinion that religious singing is makruh, while listening to it is a sin.
Abu Talib Al-Makki has quoted the opinion of several scholars, and said that listening to singing is permissible or lawful.
He said that Abdullah bin Ja’far, Abdullah bin Zubair, Mudhirah bin Syu’bah, Muawiyah and several other companions used to listen to songs like this.
Music is allowed as long as it is not against Islamic teachings
Imam Al-Ghazali tends to allow listening to music and singing.
Based on his study of the Qur’an and hadith, this activity is not worth sin. Imam Al-Ghazali wrote:
“You know, the opinion that says, ‘The activity of hearing (singing, sound, or music) is haram’ must be understood that Allah will punish someone for that activity.’
Laws like this cannot be known only based on aqli alone, but must be based on naqli.
The way to know the laws of syara’ (religion), is limited to texts and qiyas against texts.
What I mean by ‘nash’ is what the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) explained through his words and actions.
Meanwhile, what I mean by ‘qiyas’ is an analogical understanding that is understood from the words and actions of the Prophet himself. “
In addition, there are scholars who agree that the law of listening to music is not haram, except:
1. Contains elements of disobedience
First, music becomes haram if it contains elements of evil or disobedience.
Scholars question the disobedience attached to the music so that music becomes haram.
The form of disobedience in music can be in the lyrics or the strains of the song itself.
For example, if the song invites to do disobedience.
Music also contains disobedience if for example the rhythm of a song sung is like the music of certain religious worship rituals.
In this condition music becomes haram, because, a Muslim is prohibited from imitating the rituals of worship of other religions.
Other disobedience attached to music can also exist in people who sing.
2. Contains Slander
If a song contains elements of lying or slander, it is forbidden to listen to it because it is feared that it will fall into evil.
3. Forgetting His Obligations as a Muslim
A Muslim has obligations that must be performed as a servant of Allah.
If he does not carry out his obligations as a Muslim, it will be sinful and will certainly harm him.
And everything that prevents him from performing his obligations must be avoided.
That’s the information about the law of listening to music in Islam.
In fact, it’s perfectly fine to follow the views of any ulema, as long as we don’t forget our obligations as Muslims.